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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

2 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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13th Feb 2009
EESA06
Lecture 6: Changing the face of the planet t /v}}Zµ(}}ZZ}Á]uvP
u}À}µv[
1. Gravity driven processes (mass wasting)
2. Transport by ice
3. Transport by water: rivers and waves
4. Transport by wind
How gravity affects slopes
- Stress: applied force
o Depends on rock type, climate, amount of water
- Strain: response to stress
- Normal stress: an applied force acting at a right angle to the slope
- Shear stress: an applied force acting parallel to the slope
- Shear strength: the ability to resist stress
o Failure: when slope collapses (e.g. slope sliding t moving rocks down slope)
- Slope angle t the steeper the slope, the more likely to fail; depends on the sediment of rock
Gravity driven processes (mass wasting)
- Flow: turns from a solid sediment to a liquid
o E.g. thawing of ice in soil after winter
- Fall
o E.g. Niagara falls
- Slide
o Translational slide
Strata: layers in the rock parallel with the slope
Because the shear strength is low, they will slide
Happens when slopes are steep (e.g. rocky mountains)
o Rotational slide(slump)
Sediments often fluidize and turn into flow
- This is how mountains erode and slopes flatten
- Often mudslides in tropical countries because of rain and deforestation
- Earthflow: soft bedrock moving the whole hillside
o Creep: slow movement of soft rock down a slope
Permafrost
- These areas have remained cold for thousands of years
- Soil and sediment becomes frozen from the water in it
- Only the top layer of the permafrost will thaw in summer
- Discontinuous zone: areas of permafrost are discontinuous t pockets of permafrost
- Continuous zone: continuous areas of permafrost
- Problems with building roads and houses because of the freezing and thawing of permafrost
- Beaufort sea t submarine permafrost; frozen sea floor
o During the last ice age the ocean floor was exposed because of the fall of sea level when
glaciers are fed with water
o After the ice age, sea level rose and covered the ocean floor
- Landslides can be created by thawing of soil and sediment t effects of climate warming
- Debris torrent: rock and sediment that is slumping and moving rapidly down slope
o E.g. British Columbia t sea to sky highway
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Description
13 Feb 2009 EESA06 Lecture 6: Changing the face of the planet J L}}ZZ } ZZZ}ZZ}Z]KL2Z K}}L[ 1. Gravity driven processes (mass wasting) 2. Transport by ice 3. Transport by water: rivers and waves 4. Transport by wind How gravity affects slopes - Stress: applied force o Depends on rock type, climate, amount of water - Strain: response to stress - Normal stress: an applied force acting at a right angle to the slope - Shear stress: an applied force acting parallel to the slope - Shear strength: the ability to resist stress o Failure: when slope collapses (e.g. slope sliding J moving rocks down slope) - Slope angle J the steeper the slope, the more likely to fail; depends on the sediment of rock Gravity driven processes (mass wasting) - Flow: turns from a solid sediment to a liquid o E.g. thawing of ice in soil after winter - Fall o E.g. Niagara falls - Slide o Translational slide Strata: layers in the rock parallel with the slope Because the shear strength is low, they will slide Happens when slopes are steep (e.g. rocky mountains) o Rotational slide(slump)
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