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Lecture 11

Lecture 11

Environmental Science
Course Code
Nick Eyles

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Final exam:
120 MCQ
Not required to remember numbers; but concepts, terms and diagrams are key (e.g. major tectonic
Based on:
1 introduction to physical geology
2 plate tectonics
19 time and geology
20 geological history of Canada
and appropriate lectures
including 12 (environmental challenges)
3rd April 2009
Challenges of change
- urban sprawl
- severe weather
o effects of weather are more severely felt in urban areas
o losses much greater now because populations are so high now
- Hardening of watersheds
o Insertion of asphalt and impermeable surfaces for buildings
o When ground covered, water flows directly into creeks which were originally fed with
o Baseflow much less, but surface runoff much larger
Lowered capacity for dilution of contaminants
Reduced baseflows result in lower rivers result in higher temperatures of water
x Water drains off hot asphalt so higher temperatures
Firt flush: washing off of contaminants that have fallen off on road surfaces,
Flooding risk, and enhanced erosion and sediment aggradations
o Sediment in rivers
o Road salt t goes into the groundwater
A lot of salt stored in the groundwater system already
Source area protection t prohibit certain landuse types
x In areas that feed groundwater supply
x E.g. oak ridge
- Wastes/groundwater contamination
o Precipitation infiltrates ground to become groundwater
o Baseflow into creeks
o Hydrological cycle
Precipitation t> flows to creeks/infiltrates into groundwater flow (permeable)
Aquifers t rocks and sediments that are permeable and have a lot of water in
x Confined aquifers are under confining layers (impermeable e.g. clay)
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