Lecture 11

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Published on 30 Oct 2010
School
Course
Professor
Final exam:
120 MCQ
Not required to remember numbers; but concepts, terms and diagrams are key (e.g. major tectonic
settings)
Based on:
1 introduction to physical geology
2 plate tectonics
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19 time and geology
20 geological history of Canada
and appropriate lectures
including 12 (environmental challenges)
EESA06
3rd April 2009
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Challenges of change
- urban sprawl
- severe weather
o effects of weather are more severely felt in urban areas
o losses much greater now because populations are so high now
- Hardening of watersheds
o Insertion of asphalt and impermeable surfaces for buildings
o When ground covered, water flows directly into creeks which were originally fed with
groundwater
o Baseflow much less, but surface runoff much larger
Lowered capacity for dilution of contaminants
Reduced baseflows result in lower rivers result in higher temperatures of water
x Water drains off hot asphalt so higher temperatures
Firt flush: washing off of contaminants that have fallen off on road surfaces,
pavements
Flooding risk, and enhanced erosion and sediment aggradations
o Sediment in rivers
o Road salt t goes into the groundwater
A lot of salt stored in the groundwater system already
Source area protection t prohibit certain landuse types
x In areas that feed groundwater supply
x E.g. oak ridge
- Wastes/groundwater contamination
o Precipitation infiltrates ground to become groundwater
o Baseflow into creeks
o Hydrological cycle
Precipitation t> flows to creeks/infiltrates into groundwater flow (permeable)
Aquifers t rocks and sediments that are permeable and have a lot of water in
them
x Confined aquifers are under confining layers (impermeable e.g. clay)
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Document Summary

Not required to remember numbers; but concepts, terms and diagrams are key (e. g. major tectonic settings) 20 geological history of canada and appropriate lectures including 12 (environmental challenges) Urban sprawl severe weather: effects of weather are more severely felt in urban areas losses much greater now because populations are so high now. Insertion of asphalt and impermeable surfaces for buildings: when ground covered, water flows directly into creeks which were originally fed with groundwater, baseflow much less, but surface runoff much larger. S reduced baseflows result in lower rivers result in higher temperatures of water. N water drains off hot asphalt so higher temperatures. S firt flush: washing off of contaminants that have fallen off on road surfaces, pavements. S flooding risk, and enhanced erosion and sediment aggradations: sediment in rivers, road salt j goes into the groundwater. S a lot of salt stored in the groundwater system already. S source area protection j prohibit certain landuse types.

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