Not required to remember numbers; but concepts, terms and diagrams are key (e. g. major tectonic settings) 20 geological history of canada and appropriate lectures including 12 (environmental challenges) Urban sprawl severe weather: effects of weather are more severely felt in urban areas losses much greater now because populations are so high now. Insertion of asphalt and impermeable surfaces for buildings: when ground covered, water flows directly into creeks which were originally fed with groundwater, baseflow much less, but surface runoff much larger. S reduced baseflows result in lower rivers result in higher temperatures of water. N water drains off hot asphalt so higher temperatures. S firt flush: washing off of contaminants that have fallen off on road surfaces, pavements. S flooding risk, and enhanced erosion and sediment aggradations: sediment in rivers, road salt j goes into the groundwater. S a lot of salt stored in the groundwater system already. S source area protection j prohibit certain landuse types.