EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Principle Of Faunal Succession, Metamorphism, Hadean

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
Feb 25, 2013
EESA06 Lecture 7 Notes
Know that the earth is 4.56 billion years old
Avicenna didn’t think that mountains had always been there; thought they
had been built over time
Shen Kuo thought that the earth was very old
Ancient Greeks looked at rock fossils in mountains and found that they were
marine fossils; didn’t make sense because mountains were much above land
Earth history was heavily based on Christian religion
Catastrophism- Earth stays pretty much the same but every so often you
have a huge catastrophe or disaster that effects a very large area of the
world; comes along and changes things (ie. Noah’s Flood)
Know James Hutton*
Hutton found that rocks on the bottom were tilted and rocks on the top were
flat-lying; an example of an unconformity
Hutton didn’t think that all rocks came out of the ocean; thought that granite
came from cooled magma
Huttons Uniformitarianism- Realized that there are small, constant changes,
instead of catastrophism
Thought Earth must be very old for all these changes to happen over time
Pressure came in and pushed rocks together; deeper down rocks that are
hotter don’t break, but fold and become deformed
Unconformity is a gap in the geologic record
Rocks being eroded then new rocks placed on tops will cause large age
difference in rocks; unconformity
Know the great unconformity*
Magma was able to inject itself into layers of limestone, proving that it was
liquid when it was formed
Layer 2 rocks sit on top of layer 1 rocks
Fossils may be body fossils, such as bones and shells
Trace fossils aren’t actual body parts but some evidence that organisms were
there
Most things that die don’t get fossilized; quite unusual
Soft body parts must be buried quickly in fine-grained sediments
Fossils are used for rock dating
Extremely rare that youd find a complete sequence of rocks all in one pile
Creature that lived for a short amount of time, gives you a better idea of
dating fossils
Geographic is space, geologic is time
Law of faunal succession- you can use fossils to tell you how old the layers
are relative to one another
Volcanic ash can be age-dated; anything below is younger and anything
above is older
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Document Summary

Know that the earth is 4. 56 billion years old. Avicenna didn"t think that mountains had always been there; thought they had been built over time. Shen kuo thought that the earth was very old. Ancient greeks looked at rock fossils in mountains and found that they were marine fossils; didn"t make sense because mountains were much above land. Earth history was heavily based on christian religion. Catastrophism- earth stays pretty much the same but every so often you have a huge catastrophe or disaster that effects a very large area of the world; comes along and changes things (ie. noah"s flood) Hutton found that rocks on the bottom were tilted and rocks on the top were flat-lying; an example of an unconformity. Hutton didn"t think that all rocks came out of the ocean; thought that granite came from cooled magma. Huttons uniformitarianism- realized that there are small, constant changes, instead of catastrophism.

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