Chapter 19 and 11.docx

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25 Apr 2012
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Chapter 19
Sedimentary rocks with marine fossils that we find in mountains thousands of metres above sea
level were believed to have been deposited by a worldwide flood (Noah’s flood)
18 century, James Hutton, father of modern geology, discovered mountains are not permanent
No sign of a beginning or an end
Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology book, processes operating at present are the same processes
that operated in the past uniformitarianism
The present is the key to the past
In some countries actualism is used in place of uniformitarianism
Uniformitarianism has the same meaning as actualism for most geologists
Clock - Radioactivity was discovered
Numerical age absolute age, given in years or some other unit of time
Relative time the sequence in which events took place
Grand Canyon horizontal layers of rock, inclined layers, rock underlying the inclined layers
(plutonic and metamorphic rock) and the canyon itself
Contacts the surfaces separating two different rock types of rocks of different ages
Formations are bodies of rock of considerable thickness with recognizable characteristics that
make each distinguishable from adjacent rock units
Interrelationships between layered rock (mostly) or sediment to interpret the history of an area
or region stratigraphy: 1. Original horizontality, 2. Superposition 3. Lateral continuity 4. Cross-
cutting relationships
Original horizontality beds of sediment deposited in water formed as horizontal or nearly
horizontal layers, sedimentary rock originally deposited in a marine environment
Okanagan Formation, Penticton formation, osoyoos lake limestone are horizontal
Tilting of bedrock
Superposition undisturbed sedimentary or volcanic rocks, layers get younger going from
bottom to top, applies to layers by multiple lava flows
Osoyoos lake limestone is the youngest layer of sedimentary rock
The pentiction formation is the next oldest formation
Thompson river formation is the oldest
Lateral continuity original sedimentary layers extends laterally until it tapers or thins at its
edges
Crossing citting relationships states that a disrupted pattern is older than the cause of
disruption
Superposition revelstoke formation was deposited on top of the Kamloops formation
The granite intruded sometime after the abbotsford formation was formed
Instrusive contact
Contacts representing buried erosion surfaces such as these are called unconformities
Unconformity a surface or contact that represents a gap in the geologic record
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