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EESA06H3 (610)
Nick Eyles (539)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8

5 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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EESA06 Lecture 8 Page 1
EESA06 Lecture 8
Japan Earthquake:
- Pacific plate going beneath the Philippine plate both going underneath
Japanese mainland (Tokyo is dangerous)
- dµvu]ÁÀZ]PZÁo}ÁµY
- Japan as a whole moved east 25metres t normal is 2.5-3cm/year
o plates were locked build up of stress and energy
o recurrence interval t plates locked for 1000years (superquakes)
- vertical uplift t is what killed people t tsunami and lowered shoreline
Geologic Time and Stratigraphy
- The Earth is 4.56 Billion Years Old
How did we find this out?
1) Early idea on stratigraphy (the study of rock layers as in a book)
2) How layers get bent & broken (lost chapters)
3) Zo]ÀP}(}l~Z]}v]}oZvY
4) Absolute age (isotopic age dating ex: 50 million years)
5) The Geological Timescale: 4.56 to today (similar to a book)
Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on top of mountains
- How did they get there? t uplifted
- Strata t beds, older at bottom, deposition and accumulation of older layers
o Can use these to correlate rocks from one location to another
o Aliogeography t trying to find out what it was like in ancient times
^]oµÀu_~Dv]vPZ}((o}}[ t Africa was moving towards North America, collided with east coast
- ^]]o]o]v]}v}(Z[Z]}Çt }lvovµo(}uE}Z[&o}}
- More than one flood recognized t new life created each time so each layer contains different
life forms
Archbishop Ussher (1581-1625)
- Declared in 1625 that ^Z(}uõu}vK}îòthUðììð_ t only 6,000 years old
- Based on counting generation in the Bible
- µY
Georgius Agricola (1494-1555)
- ^(Z}(u]v]vPP}o}PÇ_
- Recognizes that fossil remains are of marine organisms in 1531
Nicolas Steno (1631-86)
- ^u}µv]vv]vo}ÁUovv }vÀÇ(}u}vo}v}Z_
dZ^^}]Zvo]PZuv_~íóïì-1830) t Industrial Revolution, more rational beliefs
- Joseph Black (Pioneer Chemist), James Hutton (Farmer, interest in soil formation), Adam Smith
(Economist, Free Trade), James Watt (Steam Engine, Energy), Walter Scott (Writer)
- An vPo]ZÀ]]}}]vµPZulW^Z/vÁZ]ooZ}}(]vµPZU
vvU]v(Áu]vµUlñì}(Pv]µvov]vPÇZZv_
- Rational outlook t science based
- Industrialization - Mapping of Oil shale rocks, building of canals
-
www.notesolution.com
EESA06 Lecture 8 Page 2
James Hutton (1726-97) t ^&Z}(u}vÇP}o}PÇ_
- Z}Pv^unconformities_Á]Z]voÇ}(}lvZ
igneous origin of granite t gaps in geological record
- W}}}v}(^uniformitarianism_~Zv]
the key to the past) t actualism, same processes observed today
- u]v}}v(o]Á]Zutvv^]oµÀ]o]u_ and
^catastrophism_t catastrophic floods, 6k years old earth
- Facies t uv^v}(_
o Geologists speak of rock facies
- Zµ[^t distinctive shape, igneous intrusion, sill
o First identification of igneous rocks t forms in molten state
- ,µ}v[hv}v(}u]Ç^]W}]v]v^}ov->
John Playfair, geologist (1747-1819)
- The concept of ^d]u_
- ^Zu]vP}ÁP]ÇPÌ]vP}(l]v}ZÇ}(]u_
- Layers in earth
o Secondary Strata t second layer, contained fossils
o Unconformity t gap, earth experienced multiple events
o Primary Strata t first layer
The Great Unconformity at Marmora, Ontario
- Peterborough, hwy7
- Old Iron at bottom, limestone on top with fossils
An Angular Unconformity: 500 million missing years
- Kingston
- Flat lying rocks on top of steeply dipping rocks
The Taconic Unconformity in New York State about 440Ma
- Africa collide with North America
The Igneous Original of Granite
- &}uZo>Çoo[P}o}PÇÆ}}lZW]v]o}('}o}PÇ[1830
The Big Debate of the 19th Century
- Catastropism and Creationism vs. Uniformitarianism and Evolution
- Louis Agassiz (1807-73) vs. Charles Darwin (1809-82)
- Ice Ages t suggested by Agassiz
The Industrial Revolution (1790-1820)
- t[^uvP]v t need for coal
- Scientific Revolution
- Great Demand for Resources and Geologists
Discovery of the origin of coal (1830):
- Formed in situ from plant debris growing in swamps
- Confirmed by discovery of in situ lithified tree trunk in coal seams
o >}Pv[]v^ÁvUto
One of the first Geological Society in 1807
www.notesolution.com

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Description
EESA06 Lecture 8 Page 1 EESA06 Lecture 8 Japan Earthquake: - Pacific plate going beneath the Philippine plate both going underneath Japanese mainland (Tokyo is dangerous) - @ZµLK]ÁÀZ]2ZšÁZo}Áµš; - Japan as a whole moved east 25metres J normal is 2.5-3cm/year o plates were locked build up of stress and energy o recurrence interval J plates locked for 1000years (superquakes) - vertical uplift J is what killed people J tsunami and lowered shoreline Geologic Time and Stratigraphy - The Earth is 4.56 Billion Years Old How did we find this out? 1) Early idea on stratigraphy (the study of rock layers as in a book) 2) How layers get bent & broken (lost chapters) 3) Zoš]À2}Œ} lZ~šZ]Z}L]Z}oŒšZL; 4) Absolute age (isotopic age dating ex: 50 million years) 5) The Geological Timescale: 4.56 to today (similar to a book) Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on top of mountains - How did they get there? J uplifted - Strata J beds, older at bottom, deposition and accumulation of older layers o Can use these to correlate rocks from one location to another o Aliogeography J trying to find out what it was like in ancient times ^]oµÀ]µK_~,L]L2Z}o}}[ J Africa was moving towards North America, collided with east coast - ^šŒ] š]o] o]LšŒ‰Œšš]}L}ŒšZ[ZZ]Zš}ŒÇJ Œ} lZLoLZ ‰ZŒZµošŒ}K-}Z[Zo}} - More than one flood recognized J new life created each time so each layer contains different life forms Archbishop Ussher (1581-1625) - Declared in 1625 that ^ŒšZ}ŒKšõK}LK š}Œîò 7ðììð_ J only 6,000 years old - Based on counting generation in the Bible - µš; Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) - ^šZŒ}K]L]L22}o}2Ç_ - Recognizes that fossil remains are of marine organisms in 1531 Nicolas Steno (1631-86) - ^K}µLš]LZ LŒ]ZLo}ÁŒ7oL L }LÀÇŒ}K}L‰o š}L}šZŒ_ @Z^^ }šš]ZZLo]2ZšKLš_~ íóïì-1830) J Industrial Revolution, more rational beliefs - Joseph Black (Pioneer Chemist), James Hutton (Farmer, interest in soil formation), Adam Smith (Economist, Free Trade), James Watt (Steam Engine, Energy), Walter Scott (Writer) - An L2o]ZZÀ]Z]š}Œš}]LµŒ2ZŒKŒl9^ZŒ/ZšLšÁZš]Z oošZŒ}ZZ}]LµŒ2Z7 L L7]LÁK]LµšZ7šlñì}2L]µZLoŒL]L2ÇšZZL_ - Rational outlook J science based - Industrialization - Mapping of Oil shale rocks, building of canals - www.notesolution.com EESA06 Lecture 8 Page 2 James Hutton (1726-97) J ^šZŒ}K}ŒLÇ2}o}2Ç_ - Z }2L]Ì^unconformities_Á]šZ]LoÇŒ}Œ} lLšZ igneous origin of granite J gaps in geological record - 9Œ}‰}Z }L ‰š}^uniformitarianism_~šZ‰ŒZLš]Z the key to the past) J actualism, same processes observed today - K]Lš} }Lo] šÁ]šZŒKJŒLŒL^]oµÀ]o]ZK_ and ^catastrophism_J catastrophic floods, 6k years old earth - Facies J KLZ^‰‰ŒL }_ o Geologists speak of rock facies - ŒšZµŒ[Z^šJ distinctive shape, igneous intrusion, sill o First identification of igneous rocks J forms in molten state - ,µšš}L[ZDL }L}ŒK]šÇš^] Œ9}]Lš]L^ }šoL-> John Playfair, geologist (1747-1819) - The concept of ^‰@]K_ - ^šZK]L2Œ}ÁZ2]Ç2Ì]L2Z}Œ l]Lš}šZÇZZ}š]K_ - Layers in earth o Secondary Strata J second layer, contained fossils o Unconformity J gap, earth experienced multiple events o Primary Strata J first layer The Great Unconformity at Marmora, Ontario - Peterborough, hwy7 - Old Iron at bottom, limestone on top with fossils An Angular Unconformity: 500 million missing years - Kingston - Flat lying rocks on top of steeply dipping rocks The Taconic Unconformity in New York State about 440Ma - Africa collide with North America T
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