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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Notes

Environmental Science
Course Code
Nick Eyles

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Lecture 9:
The Future of Planet Earth
Alpine-Himalayan Orogeny: The building of the next super continent (Pangea 2)
Histor y doesn't repeat itself, . . .but it often rhymes
Earth's histor y tells us of the future
All the continents are headed towards South East Asia
In China when major earthquakes occur, it is because India is pushing up
The mountain range that is the product of Africa colliding with Europe is the Alps
We don't see volcanos is obduction zones
In fold and thrust belts there is a lot of oil and gas because they cont ain the right structures to
trap hydro carbons
Ophiolite is the remnants of for mer oceanic crust and sediments tha t previously separated the 2
Alpine-Himalayan Orogeny-
spans from the Western Alps to the Tibetan Plateau
Gondwana- was the sout hern continents of Pangea
Cimmerian Orgeon was the pre-himalayan mountain range
Foreland Basin- A foreland basin is a depression that develops adjacent and parallel to a
mountain belt. Foreland basins for m because the immense mass created by crustal thickening
associated with the evolution of a mountain belt causes the lithosphere to bend, by a process
known as lithosphe ric f lexure.
Just below the summit of mount everest is sedimentary rocks, and limestone.
The more methane in the atmosphere the more heat gets trapped and the warmer the planet is.
Br ine is produced from enriched saline sea water that has been frozen. It has a higher density
than normal sea water, which causes it to sink.
Warm water from the equator goes North, and cold saline water goes to the South.
Gravity erodes high mountains. People argue that Mount everest will not get any higher, because
if it does the erosion will disrupt the balance.
Khumbu Glacier-The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of nor theastern Nepal.
The Khumbu Glacier is followed for t he final part of the trail to Everest Base Camp. The actual
start of the glacier is in the Western Cwm of Everest itself. Khumbu Icefall is on the southern
slopes of Mount Everest; the glacier itself is between Mount Everest and Lhotse-Nuptse r idge.
The Bengal Fan- volume is about 12.5x10^6 km^3 Called a fan because it has the mor phology
of a fan. It is called a submarine fan. The sediment get chemically weathered, it has the effect
the release of carbon dioxide.
If you take CO2 out of the atmosphere the climate cools.
Chikyu- the only drill ship cur rently in the world. Previously there was 'Resolution'. It allows us
to get infor mation about subduction zones, however only for 3 mont hs out of the year
Foraminifera- very simply unicellular organisms that all gave very different decorated cells.
They are very tiny, and present in the ocean waters, they live their life, die and move down into
the sediment at the bottom of the ocean.
Globorotalia- a type of foraminifera that has different coiling depending on the water
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