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25 Mar 2011
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Lecture 9:
The Future of Planet Earth
๎€Alpine-Himalayan Orogeny: The building of the next super continent (Pangea 2)
๎€โ€œHistor y doesn't repeat itself, . . .but it often rhymesโ€
๎€Earth's histor y tells us of the future
๎€All the continents are headed towards South East Asia
๎€In China when major earthquakes occur, it is because India is pushing up
๎€The mountain range that is the product of Africa colliding with Europe is the Alps
๎€We don't see volcanos is obduction zones
๎€In fold and thrust belts there is a lot of oil and gas because they cont ain the right structures to
trap hydro carbons
๎€Ophiolite is the remnants of for mer oceanic crust and sediments tha t previously separated the 2
continents.
๎€Alpine-Himalayan Orogeny-
๎€‚spans from the Western Alps to the Tibetan Plateau
๎€Gondwana- was the sout hern continents of Pangea
๎€Cimmerian Orgeon was the pre-himalayan mountain range
๎€Foreland Basin- A foreland basin is a depression that develops adjacent and parallel to a
mountain belt. Foreland basins for m because the immense mass created by crustal thickening
associated with the evolution of a mountain belt causes the lithosphere to bend, by a process
known as lithosphe ric f lexure.
๎€Just below the summit of mount everest is sedimentary rocks, and limestone.
๎€The more methane in the atmosphere the more heat gets trapped and the warmer the planet is.
๎€Br ine is produced from enriched saline sea water that has been frozen. It has a higher density
than normal sea water, which causes it to sink.
๎€Warm water from the equator goes North, and cold saline water goes to the South.
๎€Gravity erodes high mountains. People argue that Mount everest will not get any higher, because
if it does the erosion will disrupt the balance.
๎€Khumbu Glacier-The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of nor theastern Nepal.
The Khumbu Glacier is followed for t he final part of the trail to Everest Base Camp. The actual
start of the glacier is in the Western Cwm of Everest itself. Khumbu Icefall is on the southern
slopes of Mount Everest; the glacier itself is between Mount Everest and Lhotse-Nuptse r idge.
๎€The Bengal Fan- volume is about 12.5x10^6 km^3 Called a fan because it has the mor phology
of a fan. It is called a submarine fan. The sediment get chemically weathered, it has the effect
the release of carbon dioxide.
๎€If you take CO2 out of the atmosphere the climate cools.
๎€Chikyu- the only drill ship cur rently in the world. Previously there was 'Resolution'. It allows us
to get infor mation about subduction zones, however only for 3 mont hs out of the year
๎€Foraminifera- very simply unicellular organisms that all gave very different decorated cells.
They are very tiny, and present in the ocean waters, they live their life, die and move down into
the sediment at the bottom of the ocean.
๎€Globorotalia- a type of foraminifera that has different coiling depending on the water
temperature.
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

alpine-himalayan orogeny: the building of the next super continent (pangea 2) earth"s history tells us of the future. all the continents are headed towards south east asia. In china when major earthquakes occur, it is because india is pushing up. the mountain range that is the product of africa colliding with europe is the alps. we don"t see volcanos is obduction zones. In fold and thrust belts there is a lot of oil and gas because they contain the right structures to trap hydro carbons. ophiolite is the remnants of former oceanic crust and sediments that previously separated the 2 continents. spans from the western alps to the tibetan plateau. gondwana- was the southern continents of pangea. cimmerian orgeon was the pre-himalayan mountain range. foreland basin- a foreland basin is a depression that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt.

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