EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Walkerton, Ontario

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8 Apr 2011
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Lecture 11 t Environmental Challenges
Exam: focus on plate tectonics and chapter 20
Urban Sprawl
- Urban shadow: economic influence
- Toronto: huge demand for concrete, gravel t using up the local resources of rock
- Lake Ontario t putting a lot of sewage in
o Surface water t very sensitive to contaminants and pollution
- Rocks have fractures, from which water goes through the cracks
Managing/protecting water resources
Watersheds and ecosystems
- Impacted by urban development
- Rivers t hardened t urbanization of the water shed the water flushes off the hard surfaces and
buildings t less water goes into the ground, runs off very quickly t discharges is flashy, up and
down
o Highland creek t had big bends
o Now wants to straighten itself with erosion and flooding problems
Wastes (nuclear, municipal, industrial, etc)
- Moved around and stored properly
- Put in landfills
- Water goes down through the waste and interacts with the waste producing leech ate
o Moves out from the bottom of the pit producing a plume
o Shape of the contaminant plume similar to when you[re barbequing
o Being able to deal with the waste t Morningside and Ellesmere Æ now a plume
o Have to have pipes, clay, plastic surround landfills
Remediation of contaminated sites
- Clean them up
- Opposition of building on farmland
- Brown field sites t tear the buildings down and building something new
o Understand what was there before
- Biological agents used to clean remediated sites
o Hydrocarbons love the bacteria Æ horse manure
Radon gas
- Break down of uranium
o Uranium to lead
- Colourless, odourless
- Breaks down into polonium, people breathe that in, producing lung cancer
- Canada has a lot of granite containing uranium and a lot of shales which also have a lot of
uranium
Hazards: earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis
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Mitigation of climate warming effects
- We }v[ know the effects of it after 20 years
- 1998: warmest year
Environmental impact of resource extraction and energy supplies
- Mining, quarrying
- Alberta Æ oil sands has to be removed and treated to get the oil out
Environmental policy and planning
- How should we design urban areas?
Scope of Environmental Geosciences
- Understanding earth processes
- Providing resource security
o Water, iron, coal
- Helping society adjust to global change
o The way in which the environment is changing naturally
- Providing reliable information for planning and environmental decision making
- Protection from natural hazards
- Public health and safety
U.S., China, Japan
- As urban areas get bigger, they[u}µ]o}ZÌ
- Life becomes more dangerous
- As the global population increases,
Anthropocene: ZThe Epoch of Man[
- The very last period of earth history
- Began with the invention of the steam engine
o Industrial revolution
o Big demand for resources
Factories, movement of people from poor paying jobs
Urban development
o Urbanization Æ #1 environmental issue
- Built landscape on top of natural landscapes
o Sites that produce contaminants that get into the ground Æ need to trace movements
Scarborough Bluffs
- No regard for watersheds
- Rapid hardening of watersheds
o Replacement of permeable surface (soil, grass) with concrete, ash felt
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Document Summary

Exam: focus on plate tectonics and chapter 20. Toronto: huge demand for concrete, gravel j using up the local resources of rock. Lake ontario j putting a lot of sewage in: surface water j very sensitive to contaminants and pollution. Rocks have fractures, from which water goes through the cracks. Water goes down through the waste and interacts with the waste producing leech ate. Brown field sites j tear the buildings down and building something new: understand what was there before. Biological agents used to clean remediated sites: hydrocarbons love the bacteria horse manure. Break down of uranium: uranium to lead. Breaks down into polonium, people breathe that in, producing lung cancer. Canada has a lot of granite containing uranium and a lot of shales which also have a lot of uranium. We l know the effects of it after 20 years. Environmental impact of resource extraction and energy supplies.

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