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Lecture 11

EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Walkerton, Ontario


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles
Lecture
11

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Lecture 11 t Environmental Challenges
Exam: focus on plate tectonics and chapter 20
Urban Sprawl
- Urban shadow: economic influence
- Toronto: huge demand for concrete, gravel t using up the local resources of rock
- Lake Ontario t putting a lot of sewage in
o Surface water t very sensitive to contaminants and pollution
- Rocks have fractures, from which water goes through the cracks
Managing/protecting water resources
Watersheds and ecosystems
- Impacted by urban development
- Rivers t hardened t urbanization of the water shed the water flushes off the hard surfaces and
buildings t less water goes into the ground, runs off very quickly t discharges is flashy, up and
down
o Highland creek t had big bends
o Now wants to straighten itself with erosion and flooding problems
Wastes (nuclear, municipal, industrial, etc)
- Moved around and stored properly
- Put in landfills
- Water goes down through the waste and interacts with the waste producing leech ate
o Moves out from the bottom of the pit producing a plume
o Shape of the contaminant plume similar to when you[re barbequing
o Being able to deal with the waste t Morningside and Ellesmere Æ now a plume
o Have to have pipes, clay, plastic surround landfills
Remediation of contaminated sites
- Clean them up
- Opposition of building on farmland
- Brown field sites t tear the buildings down and building something new
o Understand what was there before
- Biological agents used to clean remediated sites
o Hydrocarbons love the bacteria Æ horse manure
Radon gas
- Break down of uranium
o Uranium to lead
- Colourless, odourless
- Breaks down into polonium, people breathe that in, producing lung cancer
- Canada has a lot of granite containing uranium and a lot of shales which also have a lot of
uranium
Hazards: earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis
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Mitigation of climate warming effects
- We }v[ know the effects of it after 20 years
- 1998: warmest year
Environmental impact of resource extraction and energy supplies
- Mining, quarrying
- Alberta Æ oil sands has to be removed and treated to get the oil out
Environmental policy and planning
- How should we design urban areas?
Scope of Environmental Geosciences
- Understanding earth processes
- Providing resource security
o Water, iron, coal
- Helping society adjust to global change
o The way in which the environment is changing naturally
- Providing reliable information for planning and environmental decision making
- Protection from natural hazards
- Public health and safety
U.S., China, Japan
- As urban areas get bigger, they[u}µ]o}ZÌ
- Life becomes more dangerous
- As the global population increases,
Anthropocene: ZThe Epoch of Man[
- The very last period of earth history
- Began with the invention of the steam engine
o Industrial revolution
o Big demand for resources
Factories, movement of people from poor paying jobs
Urban development
o Urbanization Æ #1 environmental issue
- Built landscape on top of natural landscapes
o Sites that produce contaminants that get into the ground Æ need to trace movements
Scarborough Bluffs
- No regard for watersheds
- Rapid hardening of watersheds
o Replacement of permeable surface (soil, grass) with concrete, ash felt
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