whole idea of this is to figure out what the contemporary environments are in
these places, and what the disposition of ancient environments are. Trying to put
together paleogeography: what the geography looked like in the past.
•Slide 4: eastern Canada, rock deformed when Pangea was beginning to come
together, these rocks were folded because Africa was moving towards North
America, collided with the east coast and buckled the rocks.
•About 150 years ago there would be a very strict biblical idea about how the Earth
was created. Rocks and landscapes result from Noah’s flood. More than one flood
recognized (new life created each time so each later contains different life forms.
Then over the ensuing decades it was realized that the Earth does have a history.
Diluvium: of a flood; rocks were regarded simply as diluvium. Noah’s flood was
seen as creating the Earth’s surface. Earth was created in an instant, etc.
•Archbishop Ussher 1581-1656, quite famous in the history of geology. Declared
in 1625 “earth formed at 9am on October 26th 4004 BC, based on counting
generation in the bible. Ussher spent years going through the bible, at the time this
was a major scientific undertaking. According to him the earth was about 6000
years old, other people came along and gave the day and time in the morning.
They believed that the Earth was young.
•Georgius Agricola 1494-1555: father of mining geology, because he wrote a
famous book that was published after his death in 1556 called de re metallica, this
book was later translated by Hoover who is the former president of the United
States “Hoover Damn” right outside of Vegas. Recognizes that fossils are remains
of marine organisms in 1531. And then mining took off, people started digging
whole in the ground, started digging tunnels, and they noticed the layers. They
began to wonder if all of these layers were deposited in one flood, or in many,
these were dangerous thoughts as they realized that the world wasn’t created all at
one time. People were beginning to realize that Earth has a history.
•Nicholas Steno 1631-86: “mountains can be raised and lowered, land can be
conveyed from one place to another.” Was a doctor, geology didn’t really exist at
the time. He really got it. In some places he is regarded as the father of
stratigraphy. These two are sometimes regarded as starting it all.
•Then comes the industrial revolution and a period called the “Scottish
Enlightenment” 1730-1830. During industrial revolution they used a lot of coal to
run steam engines, they needed resources they had to go out and find it. people
started mapping things like coal and oil shale, they used to burn this to produce
oil, very dangerous used to do it in Craigleith Ontario near Collingwood. They
built canals, to transport goods. Joseph Black: A Scottish physician and chemist.
James hutton: was a farmer, interested in soil and became interested in how soil
formed, he’s now regarded as the father of modern day geology. Adam Smith: the
founder of modern day economics, the wealth of nations, free trade, still relevant
today. James Watt: he developed the steam engine. Walter Scott: writer, used to
write about Scotland. There was a concentration of intellectuals in Edinburgh.
• James Hutton 1726-97: 1. Recognized “unconformities within layers of rocks and
the igneous origin of granite. 2. Proposed concept of “unconformintarianism” the