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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Notes

6 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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EESA lecture 8
Japan is so dangerous because it has both the pacific plate and the Philippine
plate. The pacific plate is going down below the Philippine plate, and both are
going under land.
Vectors showing the direction and how much Japan moved after the earthquake, it
moved 25 meters. (GPS vectors) the whole of Japan moved east, and parts of the
off shore as much as 25 meters. Why does it move 25 meters in one go? What is
being released? The plates are locked so a lot of stress is built up. Normal plate
movement would be 2.5-3cm a year, 25 meters tells you that this accumulated
movement has built up for 1000 years, Japan goes east pacific plate underneath
goes west. If you look at a map of Japan Tokyo is in a bad place as its where the
pacific plate is going under the Philippine plate, the fact that we’ve had one this
week doesn’t mean that there won’t be one in the near future.
Tilting up the whole ocean floor just off shore, all of this water goes west, not
only that but the shore line got depressed, so the tsunami that went to the east was
relatively small, whereas the one that went west towards the shore line was quite
severe.
Geologic time and Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy is simply lining up rocks in terms of their geologic age. So if you’re
in Eastern Japan and you want to find out what the prehistoric earthquake record
is you go out and look for deformed sediments, sediment layers, then you try and
figure out how old the sediments are, you then put them together in a logical way
according to their age. (comes from Greek “strata” which means layer) simply, we
have layers of rocks, how old are they.
Relative age of rocks is quite easy, you can determine by the nature of the
relationship between the layers of sediment which one is older. As you come up
in the stratigraphy you get younger and younger layers. Though this sometimes
doesn’t work, if you go out to the Rockies some sediment layers are actually
upside down because of plate tectonics.
Absolute age: we can actually put a number on the age, it’s not always the case
that we can absolute age date rocks, they may not have the right material in there
that we can date.
The Geologic time scale: can be scary because it consists of lots and lots of
names, we don’t need to remember this, just need to know what it is. Large books
and instead of page numbers it has names of rocks around the world.
Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on tops of mountains.
(slide 3) rock has been uplifted, same situation as in Japan, pacific plate has slid
underneath. These are marine rocks they were deposited way off shore,
underwater, now they’re several kilometers above land. These rocks are the right
way up, the older rocks are at the bottom. Each layer may have a distinct fossil
type. We can correlate the rocks we see in one location, with the rocks we see in
another. Can correlate rocks in the same area, or between different areas. The
www.notesolution.com
whole idea of this is to figure out what the contemporary environments are in
these places, and what the disposition of ancient environments are. Trying to put
together paleogeography: what the geography looked like in the past.
Slide 4: eastern Canada, rock deformed when Pangea was beginning to come
together, these rocks were folded because Africa was moving towards North
America, collided with the east coast and buckled the rocks.
About 150 years ago there would be a very strict biblical idea about how the Earth
was created. Rocks and landscapes result from Noah’s flood. More than one flood
recognized (new life created each time so each later contains different life forms.
Then over the ensuing decades it was realized that the Earth does have a history.
Diluvium: of a flood; rocks were regarded simply as diluvium. Noah’s flood was
seen as creating the Earth’s surface. Earth was created in an instant, etc.
Archbishop Ussher 1581-1656, quite famous in the history of geology. Declared
in 1625 “earth formed at 9am on October 26th 4004 BC, based on counting
generation in the bible. Ussher spent years going through the bible, at the time this
was a major scientific undertaking. According to him the earth was about 6000
years old, other people came along and gave the day and time in the morning.
They believed that the Earth was young.
Georgius Agricola 1494-1555: father of mining geology, because he wrote a
famous book that was published after his death in 1556 called de re metallica, this
book was later translated by Hoover who is the former president of the United
StatesHoover Damn” right outside of Vegas. Recognizes that fossils are remains
of marine organisms in 1531. And then mining took off, people started digging
whole in the ground, started digging tunnels, and they noticed the layers. They
began to wonder if all of these layers were deposited in one flood, or in many,
these were dangerous thoughts as they realized that the world wasn’t created all at
one time. People were beginning to realize that Earth has a history.
Nicholas Steno 1631-86:mountains can be raised and lowered, land can be
conveyed from one place to another.” Was a doctor, geology didn’t really exist at
the time. He really got it. In some places he is regarded as the father of
stratigraphy. These two are sometimes regarded as starting it all.
Then comes the industrial revolution and a period called the “Scottish
Enlightenment 1730-1830. During industrial revolution they used a lot of coal to
run steam engines, they needed resources they had to go out and find it. people
started mapping things like coal and oil shale, they used to burn this to produce
oil, very dangerous used to do it in Craigleith Ontario near Collingwood. They
built canals, to transport goods. Joseph Black: A Scottish physician and chemist.
James hutton: was a farmer, interested in soil and became interested in how soil
formed, he’s now regarded as the father of modern day geology. Adam Smith: the
founder of modern day economics, the wealth of nations, free trade, still relevant
today. James Watt: he developed the steam engine. Walter Scott: writer, used to
write about Scotland. There was a concentration of intellectuals in Edinburgh.
James Hutton 1726-97: 1. Recognizedunconformities within layers of rocks and
the igneous origin of granite. 2. Proposed concept of “unconformintarianism the
www.notesolution.com

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Description
EESA lecture 8 Japan is so dangerous because it has both the pacific plate and the Philippine plate. The pacific plate is going down below the Philippine plate, and both are going under land. Vectors showing the direction and how much Japan moved after the earthquake, it moved 25 meters. (GPS vectors) the whole of Japan moved east, and parts of the off shore as much as 25 meters. Why does it move 25 meters in one go? What is being released? The plates are locked so a lot of stress is built up. Normal plate movement would be 2.5-3cm a year, 25 meters tells you that this accumulated movement has built up for 1000 years, Japan goes east pacific plate underneath goes west. If you look at a map of Japan Tokyo is in a bad place as its where the pacific plate is going under the Philippine plate, the fact that weve had one this week doesnt mean that there wont be one in the near future. Tilting up the whole ocean floor just off shore, all of this water goes west, not only that but the shore line got depressed, so the tsunami that went to the east was relatively small, whereas the one that went west towards the shore line was quite severe. Geologic time and Stratigraphy Stratigraphy is simply lining up rocks in terms of their geologic age. So if youre in Eastern Japan and you want to find out what the prehistoric earthquake record is you go out and look for deformed sediments, sediment layers, then you try and figure out how old the sediments are, you then put them together in a logical way according to their age. (comes from Greek strata which means layer) simply, we have layers of rocks, how old are they. Relative age of rocks is quite easy, you can determine by the nature of the relationship between the layers of sediment which one is older. As you come up in the stratigraphy you get younger and younger layers. Though this sometimes doesnt work, if you go out to the Rockies some sediment layers are actually upside down because of plate tectonics. Absolute age: we can actually put a number on the age, its not always the case that we can absolute age date rocks, they may not have the right material in there that we can date. The Geologic time scale: can be scary because it consists of lots and lots of names, we dont need to remember this, just need to know what it is. Large books and instead of page numbers it has names of rocks around the world. Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on tops of mountains. (slide 3) rock has been uplifted, same situation as in Japan, pacific plate has slid underneath. These are marine rocks they were deposited way off shore, underwater, now theyre several kilometers above land. These rocks are the right way up, the older rocks are at the bottom. Each layer may have a distinct fossil type. We can correlate the rocks we see in one location, with the rocks we see in another. Can correlate rocks in the same area, or between different areas. The www.notesolution.com
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