Using geological science to manage environmental problems and hazards in canada (earthquakes etc)and properly develop resources (minerals, oil, water etc) The arrows on the map are called vectors show direcion & magnitude. Toronto we"re moving just south of west; rate of movement 3. 7 cm per year. No ixed place/stable anywhere in the earth; always moving. Every 500 million years we get a superconinent (roughly) The southern coninents south america, africa, india, australia, antarcica gondwana (india, rocks were irst discovered) Role of geoscience is conducing research into planet earth to secure resources for future. These megaciies forget that they are in dangerous areas (e. g. earthquakes, volcanic erupions) Geology of southern ontario: 1. 5 billion years of earth history. They leave sediments/glacial sediments; a major source of groundwater. Sedimentary rocks record ime of when ontario was at the equator. Layer 1: the canadian shield (> 1 billion years) But they are formed about 25 km underground.