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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 notes

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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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Lecture 9
The plate tectonic future of planet earth where are we headed?
2
What will happen in the future to planet earth?
oAlpine-Himalayan Orogeny: The building of the next
supercontinent (Pangea II)
Obduction - The process where by we collide continents
together, no volcanoes but big earthquakes. Very
important to grow continents.
Subduction destroys crust and obduction collides crust
and create bigger continents
Canada million of years ago were little continents
(provinces) and then they collided together and created
one big continent North America
oObduction processes as Indian sub-continent collides with Asia
oDestruction of the Tethys Ocean
Tethys Ocean is gone, all of its crust is now in the
Himalayas, this ocean was big as the Pacific Ocean
oUplift of the Himalayas and Climate Change
Tectonic processes can change climate on much longer
time scales
The oregenic belt (Himalayas) changed climate and it lead
to a cooling of the planet of the last 20 million years
Because of the uplift of the Himalayas belt we have a cool
climate and an arctic. Climate changed in east Africa
promoted human development.
3
The phase we are in right now is one where the continents are moving
apart
The Atlantic will start to close, the pacific I already closing
Reverse the process and we will know what the planet will look like
(Pangea II)
200 million years time there will be new organisms around, our planet
is doing well right now
4
Red arrows indicate the direction the plates are moving in
The length of the arrow is the velocity
Where is it headed? Japan, Southeast Asia will be the locus of the next
super continent
5
www.notesolution.com
Oduction process at work
Figure 2.29 in textbook goes into oduction and shows a cross section
through it
There is the Indian subcontinent
The himalyas is the buckle that collided asia and india together
The Himalayas is the old crust from the old ocean
Subduction zone is right off Indoneasia
The little ladders is where is spreading is occurring, its not all
compression
MOST IMPORTANT: The affects of India being driven up as a wedge is
that the effects of felt over a very large area. Afghanistan and
Southeast Asia is escaping out of the way
This collision is huge in the size of the mountains and the effects it has
regionally
The reason for major earthquakes in China is because India is pushing
off, same in Pakistan is because of the fault in India
6
This is picture shows the obduction process india in facing
The time lines show where India was 24 million years ago
The collision started 20million years ago
Subduction zone is next to Indonesia
Mediterranean is a remnant of the ocean that remains between Africa
and Europe, it is closing as Africa continues moving up towards Europe
7
This is obduction
A huge Compressional zone with a lot of metamorphism, gneiss rocks,
high temperature and pressure
Granite (high content of silica) Plutons
Rhyolite local melting, we dont see volcanoes in obduction zones
No volcanoes in the Himalayas because its an obduction zone
Fold and Thrust belts is where the cover rocks sitting on top of the
continental rocks (mostly sedimentary rocks) have been shoved
What is in the fold and thrust belts in terms of resources? Oil and
Gas, because there is the right structures to trap oil and gas
This processes causes little pieces of continental crust to form together
Ophiolites the remnants of oceanic crust from the ocean that
previously separated the two continents. The name given to green
rocks that resulted from the metamorphism from basalt
Green stone belts is as a result of this process (obduction), which is
widely spread in the Canadian Shield
www.notesolution.com
Pillow basalt - Igneous rocks that are erupted under water (remnants
of the oceans that got squeezed, destroyed, and deformed as crust
collided by this process)
8
Skipped
9
Indenter model (???)
10
Map showing the complete Alpine-Himalayan Orogeny
Runs as a continues belt (showed in brown)
Orogeny - describes the process a mountain building
Orogen the name given to the rocks that result
The diagram shows the Orogen not the Orogeny
11
A couple 100 millions years ago this is what the planet would have
looked like The end of Pangea
Pangea had a crudely sea shaped mass
All these continents down there are referred too as the southern
continents because the were in the south
Whole area was called Gondawana aka southern continents
The crude sea shape was right in the heart of the sea Neotethys
Rocks off of Australia was moving away and then colliding with
Laurasia
Simirian Orogen pre-Himalayan mountain building place
India is separated from Antarctica by (whats the dark blue?) a mid
ocean ridge (a rift) this shows Pangea breaking up
India and Australia is pushed to the north by these mid ocean rifts
which causes Gondawana to break apart and the Tethys ocean is
destroyed because India is moving north and its closing the ocean and
then it hits Asia
12
Figure 22.9 in textbook
Top figure
oA subduction on the far right, which is the Symirian Orogeny
oIts subduction because we are subducting the ocean floor
oOcean crust being more dense is subducted below the continent
oFar left there is a subduction
Bottom figure
oFallen basin when we have high mountains its a load on the
softer rocks that are called the Asthenosphere (means weak
steer causes the rocks to move)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 9 The plate tectonic future of planet earth where are we headed? 2 What will happen in the future to planet earth? o Alpine-Himalayan Orogeny: The building of the next supercontinent (Pangea II) Obduction - The process where by we collide continents together, no volcanoes but big earthquakes. Very important to grow continents. Subduction destroys crust and obduction collides crust and create bigger continents Canada million of years ago were little continents (provinces) and then they collided together and created one big continent North America o Obduction processes as Indian sub-continent collides with Asia o Destruction of the Tethys Ocean Tethys Ocean is gone, all of its crust is now in the Himalayas, this ocean was big as the Pacific Ocean o Uplift of the Himalayas and Climate Change Tectonic processes can change climate on much longer time scales The oregenic belt (Himalayas) changed climate and it lead to a cooling of the planet of the last 20 million years Because of the uplift of the Himalayas belt we have a cool climate and an arctic. Climate changed in east Africa promoted human development. 3 The phase we are in right now is one where the continents are moving apart The Atlantic will start to close, the pacific I already closing Reverse the process and we will know what the planet will look like (Pangea II) 200 million years time there will be new organisms around, our planet is doing well right now 4 Red arrows indicate the direction the plates are moving in The length of the arrow is the velocity Where is it headed? Japan, Southeast Asia will be the locus of the next super continent 5 www.notesolution.com
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