EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Deep Time, Arthur Holmes, Sedimentary Rock

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Published on 24 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
Japan earthquake-dangerous because of pacific plate going below phillipine plate
o Epicentre 80km offshore
o Tsunami propagated
o Japan moved 25 m East because plates were locked and wanna moved, build up stress,
normal rate of plate movment is 2.5 cm/yr
o Recurrence interval for these superquakes are 1000 yrs
o Pacific plate underneath goes west
o May also be another one in near future
o Outline of japan coastline (slide 5)
o Tilting up the ocean floor-water goes west, shoreline got depressed, tsunami larger
Stratigraphy-arranging rocks in logical sequence in terms of age...from greek strata (layer)
Layer underneath another is older..not always (sometimes in rockys rocks are upside down due to
plate tectonics)
Layer has been uplifted..pacific plate going underneath..rocks on top of mountains
o Rocks deposited way offshore underwater now above land
o Older strata at bottom
o Deposition through time, successive layers
o Correlate-can be short distances or large..to find out what contemporary environments
were in certain areas..put together paleogeography (what world looked like in past)
Eastern Canada-deformed rock when pangea began to come together
o Because Africa moving towards NA and collided with east coast and buckled rocks
o Diluvium-meaning “of a flood”..rocks deposited in noah flood (thought to have created
earths surface)=creationist view of earth history
o Then thought the earth was created as we see it today
o But now ppl know that earth has history
Archbishop Ussher-should be able to look through bible to find out earths history of when day 1
was
o Declared earth was 6000 yrs old
o Notion that earth was young stood for some time
Georgius Agricola-mining took off, realized that they saw layers, different strata,
o Father of mining geology-book in 1556
o Realized fossils u see in rocks are preserved remains u see in ancient organisms
o Translated by Hoover-hoover dam in vegas-irrigate desert
Nicholas steno-physician, father of stratigraphy
Industrial revolution (coals use for steam engines)-need resources
o More rational view of world
o Scottish enlightenment
o Ppl started to map oil shales, to produce oil
o Built canals-move bulky stuff,
o Joseph black-pioneers of modern chemistry, get salt
o James Hutton-farmer, soil formation, father of modern day geology
o Adam smith-modern day economics, wealth of nations, free trade
o James Watt-developed steam engine further
o Walter Scott-writer, about Scotland
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Document Summary

Stratigraphy-arranging rocks in logical sequence in terms of agefrom greek strata (layer) Layer underneath another is oldernot always (sometimes in rockys rocks are upside down due to plate tectonics) Archbishop ussher-should be able to look through bible to find out earths history of when day 1 was: declared earth was 6000 yrs old, notion that earth was young stood for some time. James hutton: recognized unconformities within layers of rocks and the igneous origin of granite. Hutton also said if u go out, what u see in terms of geologic processes can be used to explain ancient pastuniformitarism or actualism. Facies=appearance oflooks at rocks in detail, they are different: came into conflict with abram werner and diluvialism and catastrophism. This time ppl thought land was due to flood, called divuvialism or catastrophism (abram werner) Hutton unconformitycan see layers but they were horizontal and now are vertical: basic subdivision of rocks, unconformity-surface that separates the two groups of rock, gap.

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