EESA06H3 Lecture 6: Lecture 6

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8 Aug 2016
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Lecture 6
INDIA collides with ASIA after 25 Ma closing the TETHYS OCEAN and creating the MEDITERRANEAN SEA
during the ALPINE-HIMALAYAN OROGENY. This changes global climates and results in ice ages of the last
few million years.
‘PACIFIC RIM OF FIRE’: involves widespread SUBDUCTION and melt of Pacific ocean crust below
surrounding continents.
SUBDUCTION creates new continental crust resulting in GROWTH OF CONTINENTS through geologic
time and creates NATURAL HAZARDS around the Pacific Rim, and their effects on cities
Slide 2: Brittle rocks create earthquakes
Slide 7: Major mountain ranges
Created of oceanic rocks
Slide 8: Mediterranean Sea is a remnant of the Tethys
It’ll eventually close
Slide 9: Matterhorn
- Europe’s tallest mountain is composed of African crust
Slide 10: Pillow Basalt means that these folded rocks formed and erupted under water
Slide 16: - Mt. Vesuvius and Pompeii
- Ancient Roman city which was destroyed by volcanic ash and pyroclastic flows (which
occur when top of volcano collapses)
Slide 24: Professor Augusto Gansser
- Discovered that what is now above sealevel was once below the ocean
Slide 25 - Subduction= Earthquakes + Volcanoes
- Obduction= Crust collides. We get earthquakes but no volcanoes
- Ophiolite= General name given to ancient ocean crusts and basalts that are now in the
middle of continents
- Pluton = granite
- Granite has silica which makes it more stiffer (it never reaches surface of volcano)
Slide 27: - It’s possible to get rid of mountains in 200 million years through erosion, glaciers, etc
Slide 31: - Saligram. Help with marriages and luck. Omen. Seen an holy relics in Himalayas.
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