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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 In Class Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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- Doming continental crust**
- Continents dome because of a plume of hot mantle and develops a triple
junction (three major fraction that can be various km wide [each of these
arms is called a rift ])
- along the floor of these rifts an area is usually going down called subsiding
- the evolution of the triple junction leads to only one rift opening up to
develop into an ocean, this leads to failed rifts
- Failed rifts are preserved in modern continents from the breakup of Pangaea
(Ottawa river valley and the St. Lawrence river valley are examples of failed rifts)
these are important not just in case of resources but also control where large rivers
flow. They also generate earthquakes.
- An ocean is described as having a mid-oceanic ridge (the Red Sea is an embryonic
ocean that will eventually spread and grow)
- The East African rift formed by the east African plume, the horn of Africa a.k.a.
the Somalian plate will break away from Africa
- Fissures are cracks in the earths crusts and basaltic magma wells up along these
creating fissure eruptions and generates flood basalts that are lava flows that go
for tens of kms
- Afar triangle bordered by the Danakil desert that has some shield volcanoes
that tend to have low slope angles that help the basalt eruptions so that the lava
can flow instead of blowing out
- Giza in Egypt was the focus of the old kingdoms (with pyramids made out of
limestone that is made out of the remains of fossil organisms) and Luxor was the
home of the new kingdoms in Egypt (with temple complexes made out of granite)
- bioclastic Mokkatam limestone (made up of broken fossils with appearance of
shells of foraminifera) specie name = Nummulites (because the shells look like
coins). This stone makes up the core of the pyramids
- The Tura limestone (with a shiny appearance and can be polished) was used for
the outside of the pyramid with a gold cap called “electrum
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Description
- Doming continental crust** - Continents dome because of a plume of hot mantle and develops a triple junction (three major fraction that can be various km wide [each of these arms is called a rift]) - along the floor of these rifts an area is usually going down called subsiding - the evolution of the triple junction leads to only one rift opening up to develop into an ocean, this leads to failed rifts - Failed rifts are preserved in modern continents from the breakup of Pangaea (Ottawa river valley and the St. Lawrence river valley are examples of failed rifts) these are important not just in case of resources but also control where large rivers flow. They also generate earthquakes. - An ocean is described as having a mid-oceanic ridge (the Red Sea is an embryonic ocean that will eventually spread and grow) - The East African rift formed by the east African plume, the horn of Africa a.k.a. the Somalian plate will break away from Africa - Fissures are
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