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Lecture 3

EESA07H3 Lecture 3: EESA07H3F Lecture 3 and Textbook notes
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA07H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

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EESA07H3 F: Lecture 3 - Water Availability and Water Use
Water Stocks and Flows:
Water is a renewable resource. It is continuously replenished through the hydrologic
cycle.
Unsustainable water use would be withdrawal of water before it’s replenished.
Colorado Water Basin
Stocks: the static amount of water in volume units available in a given environmental
compartment.
Sustainability and water fluxes or flows: The movement of water from one
compartment to another. In volume per time units.
Focus on flows results in an analysis of the global hydrologic cycle.
Figure 1: Global Water Resources
Figure 2: Global Hydrological Cycle (Flows)
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For the global ocean, loss of water through evaporation is greater than inputs of water
from precipitation. The difference is balanced out through atmospheric water vapor,
which is transported to continents and and contributes to the excess of precipitation over
evaporation. This excess flows back into the ocean as runoff, completing the cycle.
Spatial Variability in Water Availability:
Global water resources and the people who want to access them are not evenly
distributed around the world.
Atmospheric circulation patterns result in some parts of the world receiving very little
rainfall, and some parts of the world having high annual precipitation rates.
Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a band near the equator where
surface winds converge. This leads to rising air, adiabatic cooling, and thus high
rates of rainfall.
Arid or Semi-Arid climates (areas with a severe lack of water) have dry conditions
due to sinking air masses above 30 degrees Celsius.
The Climate Moisture Index (CMI):
CMI: Climate Moisture Index
PET: Potential Evapotranspiration
P: Precipitation
Scale from 1 to -1
1 (very humid).
Large amounts of runoff; rivers form.
-1 (very arid).
Little net water availability
When Potential Evapotranspiration is less than or equal to Precipitation:
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CMI = 1 - (PET/P)
When Potential Evapotranspiration is greater than Precipitation:
CMI = (P/PET) - 1
Runoff Generation: Precipitation (P) - Evapotranspiration (ET)
There are some regions with little runoff generation but great river formations
nonetheless.
Ex. Egypt rarely has precipitation yet the Nile flows through it.
Per capita water availability: Can be calculated using runoff data combined with
population data.
Africa has the lowest runoff per unit land.
Asia and Europe have the lowest runoff per capita.
As the scale gets smaller, the measures become more extreme.
Figure 3: Average Annual Runoff
Figure 4: Renewable Water Resources by Continent
The country in the Western Hemisphere that is facing the most serious water shortages
is Mexico.
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Description
EESA07H3 F: Lecture 3 Water Availability and Water Use Water Stocks and Flows: Water is a renewable resource. It is continuously replenished through the hydrologic cycle. Unsustainable water use would be withdrawal of water before its replenished. Colorado Water Basin Stocks: the static amount of water in volume units available in a given environmental compartment. Sustainability and water fluxes or flows: The movement of water from one compartment to another. In volume per time units. Focus on flows results in an analysis of the global hydrologic cycle. Figure 1: Global Water Resources Figure 2: Global Hydrological Cycle (Flows) For the global ocean, loss of water through evaporation is greater than inputs of water from precipitation. The difference is balanced out through atmospheric water vapor, which is transported to continents and and contributes to the excess of precipitation over evaporation. This excess flows back into the ocean as runoff, completing the cycle. Spatial Variability in Water Availability: Global water resources and the people who want to access them are not evenly distributed around the world. Atmospheric circulation patterns result in some parts of the world receiving very little rainfall, and some parts of the world having high annual precipitation rates. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a band near the equator where surface winds converge. This leads to rising air, adiabatic cooling, and thus high rates of rainfall. Arid or SemiArid climates (areas with a severe lack of water) have dry conditions due to sinking air masses above 30 degrees Celsius. The Climate Moisture Index (CMI): CMI: Climate Moisture Index PET: Potential Evapotranspiration P: Precipitation Scale from 1 to 1 1 (very humid). Large amounts of runoff; rivers form. 1 (very arid). Little net water availability When Potential Evapotranspiration is less than or equal to Precipitation:
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