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EESA07H3 (45)
Lecture

Lecture 2

6 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA07H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin

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Lecture 2: Oceans
Worlds Ocean
71% of earth surface is ocean
o4:1 in southern hemisphere
o1.5:1 in northern hemisphere
Atlantic Ocean
oSeparate Americas from Europeans and African continents
oCovers 21% of earths surface
oAverage depth of 10 800 feet
oSeveral shallow sea including Caribbean, Mediterranean, Gulf of Mexico
oMajor rivers including Amazon, Congo, Mississippi, St. Lawrence drain in Atlantic
Pacific Ocean
oGoes from East to West and North to South
oAttaches all continents
oWorlds largest ocean
oCovers 30% of earth surface (64 million square miles)
oDeepest ocean with average depth of 14 000 feet
oHas 25 000 islands due to volcano eruptions
oRivers including Colorado, Columbia, Rio Grande de Santigo, Mekong, Yukon drain into Pacific
India Ocean
oBordered on west, north, east by Africa, Asia and Australia, south merges with Southern Ocean
oCovers 14% of earths surface
oWorlds warmest ocean
oAverage depth of 12 800 feet
oRivers including Ganges, Indus, Irrawaddy, Zambezi
Southern Ocean
oEncircles Antarctica
oSecond smallest, 4% of earths surface
oDifferent depths at different places, average depth of 12 800 feet
oSeveral seas part of Southern Ocean including Amundsen Sea, Ross Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell
oPartially covered with sea ice, with amount of ice fluctuating by season
oIn winter sees more sea ice
Arctic
oSmallest and shallowest of all 5 oceans
oCovers 3% of earths surface
oAverage depth of 3450 feet
oCenter of Arctic Ocean covered by layer of sea ice up to 10 feet thick
oIn winter, mostly covered with sea ice, which turns half in size in summer
oMany minerals and resources buried under the ice
Sea vs. Ocean
Ocean is one big body of salt water with no boundaries and limitless volume
Seas refers to large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean, commonly used as synonym for
ocean
Termseas used to differentiate between parts of the ocean
Sea is partially surrounded by land
Ocean is bigger
Inland sea: 3 sides surrounded by land, small salinity, 1 side connected to ocean
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Not all seas fall in above definitive category. E.g. The Caspian Sea, which is not really a sea but instead
the worlds largest lake
Brief History of Ocean Water
2 possible sources of water on Earth:
oInterior Earth
Core of Earth called “mantle”, which has composition similar to meteorites
Maybe by volcanic eruptions- as planet cools, it formed clouds- it rained for thousands of
years
Evidence that oldest sedimentary rock on earth is 3.9 bya indicates that oceans have been
on Earth for approximately 4by
oOuter space
Recent theory
Pictures of Earthsdayglows, UV light emitted by atomic oxygen in upper troposphere
when it absorbs electromagnetic energy from Sun
Dayglows show dark spots which is same motion as meteoritic materials
When dark spots vaporizes, get water
Comet made of rock and water in form of ice- Earth hit by thousands of comets- leaving
water in oceans
Properties of Sea Water
Composition- dissolved solids and liquids
oCl, Na, S, Mg, K, Ca, all in forms of salt
oTotal 3.32% are solids, 96.5% are liquids
o400 billion kg of dissolved solids are brought into water by rivers and streams
oMost are salts and minerals
oMain composition of gas are O2 and CO2
oRole of ocean water to regulate CO2 concentration in the atmosphere
The photosynthetic up take of atmospheric CO2 by ocean microorganisms, results in
long-term sequestration of carbon in the deep ocean
This, CO2 is removed from contact with the atmosphere for millions of years if the
particles reach the bottom and are buried in sedimentary carbonates
Ocean is the largest sink of CO2
Temperature
oOcean is heated at surface by the sun
oAverage temperatures of ocean surface water is about 17 degrees Celsius
oTemperature varies depending by depth and latitude
oPolar seas (high latitude) can be as cold as -2 degrees Celsius while Persian Gulf (low latitude)
can be as warm as 36 degrees Celsius
oDeep ocean temperature water is between 0-3 degrees Celsius
o90% of total volume of ocean found below thermocline in the deep ocean, which is not well
mixed
oThe thermocline is the transition layer between the mixed layer at surface and deep water layer
oLess dense zone with increased temperature and mixing
oSharp drop temperature near thermocline
oMost dense zone with decreasing temperature
oHighest temperature near the equator- angle of the sun
oPacific ocean have the highest water temperature
Salinity
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Description
Lecture 2: Oceans Worlds Ocean 71% of earth surface is ocean o 4:1 in southern hemisphere o 1.5:1 in northern hemisphere Atlantic Ocean o Separate Americas from Europeans and African continents o Covers 21% of earths surface o Average depth of 10 800 feet o Several shallow sea including Caribbean, Mediterranean, Gulf of Mexico o Major rivers including Amazon, Congo, Mississippi, St. Lawrence drain in Atlantic Pacific Ocean o Goes from East to West and North to South o Attaches all continents o Worlds largest ocean o Covers 30% of earth surface (64 million square miles) o Deepest ocean with average depth of 14 000 feet o Has 25 000 islands due to volcano eruptions o Rivers including Colorado, Columbia, Rio Grande de Santigo, Mekong, Yukon drain into Pacific India Ocean o Bordered on west, north, east by Africa, Asia and Australia, south merges with Southern Ocean o Covers 14% of earths surface o Worlds warmest ocean o Average depth of 12 800 feet o Rivers including Ganges, Indus, Irrawaddy, Zambezi Southern Ocean o Encircles Antarctica o Second smallest, 4% of earths surface o Different depths at different places, average depth of 12 800 feet o Several seas part of Southern Ocean including Amundsen Sea, Ross Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell o Partially covered with sea ice, with amount of ice fluctuating by season o In winter sees more sea ice Arctic o Smallest and shallowest of all 5 oceans o Covers 3% of earths surface o Average depth of 3450 feet o Center of Arctic Ocean covered by layer of sea ice up to 10 feet thick o In winter, mostly covered with sea ice, which turns half in size in summer o Many minerals and resources buried under the ice Sea vs. Ocean Ocean is one big body of salt water with no boundaries and limitless volume Seas refers to large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean, commonly used as synonym for ocean Term seas used to differentiate between parts of the ocean Sea is partially surrounded by land Ocean is bigger Inland sea: 3 sides surrounded by land, small salinity, 1 side connected to ocean www.notesolution.com
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