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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

3 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA07H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin

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Lecture 6: Glaciers and Water Issues in the GTA
Glaciers
Glacier is body of moving ice that has been formed on land by compaction and re-crystallization
Glaciers and ice sheets are unutilized sources of water
Presently glaciers cover ~10% of Earth
Play a signification role of
Highly reflective surface, reflects back to space
Positive feedback if it melts
Formation and Movements
Snow remains in same area year round
Enough snow accumulates to transform into ice same process as ice flake turn to ice crystal
Compression and have compact ice
As result of compression, have re-crystallization, and they get smaller, so more compact formation
of ice
They melt and freeze again because of changing seasons over the years
If melting process is not dominant, therefore, more snowfall, less melting, then have ice sheet over
the years
A balance between winter and summer
With climate change, get less amount of snow every year
Not just melting, but if snow accumulation is less then not compression, not re-crystallization
Ice at bottom of glaciers creates plasticity and it starts to move and glacier is born
Glacier is on top of land and not on top of sea or any body of water
Last glacier maximum was approx. 20 000 years ago
Movements of Glaciers
Arrows represent speed, longer the arrows, faster the speed
At centre, glaciers move much faster compared to size of the bottom because the friction of bedrock
of the sides and bottom of glaciers, those are the areas where glaciers move slowly
Factors that Control Glaciers movements
Volume, smaller glaciers move faster
Slope- steeper slope moves++ faster
Amount of water- if have water at base of glacier will move faster
High temperature (above 0)- move faster
Friction
Types
Temperate Glaciers:
oWater at base, more movement
Polar glaciers:
oFrozen at base, less movement
Cirque glaciers
oSmallest glaciers of all
oHave bowl type shape where ice accumulate
oSometimes they create lakes at base called Tarns Lakes
Valley Glaciers (Alaska)
oIf these glaciers melt, they move down slope and they stay there, and accumulate less snow,
may turn into another glacier over time
oTurn to surging valley glaciers
Have alternate freezing and melting
Sea Ice
Covers 2/3 of Earths surface
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Description
Lecture 6: Glaciers and Water Issues in the GTA Glaciers Glacier is body of moving ice that has been formed on land by compaction and re-crystallization Glaciers and ice sheets are unutilized sources of water Presently glaciers cover ~10% of Earth Play a signification role of Highly reflective surface, reflects back to space Positive feedback if it melts Formation and Movements Snow remains in same area year round Enough snow accumulates to transform into ice same process as ice flake turn to ice crystal Compression and have compact ice As result of compression, have re-crystallization, and they get smaller, so more compact formation of ice They melt and freeze again because of changing seasons over the years If melting process is not dominant, therefore, more snowfall, less melting, then have ice sheet over the years A balance between winter and summer With climate change, get less amount of snow every year Not just melting, but if snow accumulation is less then not compression, not re-crystallization Ice at bottom of glaciers creates plasticity and it starts to move and glacier is born Glacier is on top of land and not on top of sea or any body of water
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