EESA09H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Canadian Pacific Air Lines, 42Nd Parallel North, Freezing Rain
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EESA09- Lecture 5- Midlatitude Cyclones
- Mid Latitude describes the latitudes between 35 degrees and 60 degrees. Toronto is located in
this region at 42 degrees.
- Midlatitude Cyclones: Meteorologists refer to these cyclones as “lows”, or “frontal or low
pressure system”. Occurs usually in the fall, winter, and spring every 4 to 7 days. Theses
systems are larger than hurricanes can extend up to thousands of kilometers but wind speeds
are lower than in hurricanes, however, thunderstorms and tornadoes may be present.
- Polar fronts are dominant in the midlatitudes and polar jets follow the path of jet streams which
increases its intensity. Mid Latitudinal regions experience a collision of the continental polar
(cP) and maritime tropical (mP) air masses.
Wind Shear: A gradient of wind direction or speed that can be unstable. Described to be either
horizontal wind shear or vertical wind shear.
Fronts: The boundary between cold air masses and warm air masses.
◆Designated by alternating half circles (red) and triangles (blue)
● Lacks energy (stable)
●Low pressure trough
●Horizontal wind shear
●Lacks latent heat needed to fuel storms.
➔Cold Front: Cold air pushes into warm air masses
◆Designated with a line of blue triangles that face the direction of the warm air
●Frontal slope is very steep
●Wind speeds 7-13 meters/second
●Heavy precipitation where the warm air mass is forced upwards
●Strong temperature gradients
●Strong change in moisture (dew point)
●There is a shift in wind direction
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