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Lecture 5

EESA09H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Canadian Pacific Air Lines, 42Nd Parallel North, Freezing Rain


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA09H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin
Lecture
5

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EESA09- Lecture 5- Midlatitude Cyclones
- Mid Latitude describes the latitudes between 35 degrees and 60 degrees. Toronto is located in
this region at 42 degrees.
- Midlatitude Cyclones: Meteorologists refer to these cyclones as “lows”, or “frontal or low
pressure system”. Occurs usually in the fall, winter, and spring every 4 to 7 days. Theses
systems are larger than hurricanes can extend up to thousands of kilometers but wind speeds
are lower than in hurricanes, however, thunderstorms and tornadoes may be present.
- Polar fronts are dominant in the midlatitudes and polar jets follow the path of jet streams which
increases its intensity. Mid Latitudinal regions experience a collision of the continental polar
(cP) and maritime tropical (mP) air masses.
Wind Shear: A gradient of wind direction or speed that can be unstable. Described to be either
horizontal wind shear or vertical wind shear.
Fronts: The boundary between cold air masses and warm air masses.
Stationary Front:
Designated by alternating half circles (red) and triangles (blue)
Lacks energy (stable)
Low pressure trough
Horizontal wind shear
Lacks latent heat needed to fuel storms.
Cold Front: Cold air pushes into warm air masses
Designated with a line of blue triangles that face the direction of the warm air
Frontal slope is very steep
Wind speeds 7-13 meters/second
Heavy precipitation where the warm air mass is forced upwards
Strong temperature gradients
Strong change in moisture (dew point)
There is a shift in wind direction
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