- who was Icarus? Mythical flight who flew near to the sun
- What did Leonardo Da Vinci do in the 15th century ? He created designs of hang gliders ,
helicopters and other flying machines but didn’t make them since he didn’t have the
engineering skills to do so
- What did George Cayley do? First piloted glider in 1853
- Otto Lilienthal, created 2000 glider flights from his own designs but died in a glider crash in 1886
in a glider mishap
- Who created the first manned flight? THE WRIGHT BROTHERS, in Dec 17 1903
DYNAMICS OF FLYING
- The Bernouilli Principle which involves LIFT
- Fluids that are moving faster tend to have LOWER PRESSURE.
- Wings are shaped in a special way, so that the air moves FASTER Over the top of the wing than
underneath. Hence at the top of the wing there tends to be LOWER PRESSURE and the bottom
tends to have HIGHER PRESSURE, which creates a PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE pushing upwards
- The wing experiences LIFT and the flight is enabled
- Faster moving air LOWER PRESSURE
- This provides lift, which enables a plane to rise or a sailboat to move
- Moving from HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE
By 2000, 8000 commercial flights were taking place , and 1,000,000 people are in the air
Sailing has a long history, particularly in the Middle East and China.
Sailing was used as an efficient means of transportation, carrying people and goods from port
to port and bringing prosperity to coastal regions.
- It became an important part of transportation (trade , military) in the Mediterranean
- What was a negative thing about square sailing?
• Square sail limited maneuverability – because you could only sail downwind and not
- What was a benefit of lateen sailing? It was a triangular sail on a boom and provided more
options like sailing against the wind , etc.
• Mediterranean / Middle East
• Euphrates delta
• Junks developed
during Han dynasty
- Junk rig used by Chinese ships had the capability of sailing into the wind as 220 BC
- 1000 AD Newfoundland was discovered by Norse sailors
- – Christopher Columbus 1492
- What kind of travel did Christopher Columbus engage in? carrack travel via the Trade Winds and
- – 1300-1400 (Ming) Chinese
• • Navy, commercial exploration
• • 125 m vessels, nine masts
• • 3500 ships
- – 13thcentury onward – ships
- capable of travelling anywhere on earth.
• They used ships known as knars or cogs to cross the Atlantic to North America the
“square rigged” sails were very sensitive to wind direction
- Used in the 14th -17th centuries
- Used for travelling around the world
- Three masts that are 25 m in length
- What type of sails were used ? Lateen or Square rigged
- Nina and PInta were caravel ships
- Was first developed by the Americans
- HAD MANY SAILS to compete with new technology (steamers)
- Perfected by England- CHINA CLIPPER
- The china clipper was used to bring tea back from china in record time (less than 100 days)
- Since 1850 sailing has been recreational
- Works the SAME as flying
- But the difference is that there is a 90 degree change in orientation the “lift” component is
horizontal and not vertical
- LIFT IS HORIZONTAL , and bernoulli’s principle still applies
- There is a moveable boom , typical of a lateen sail and this enables flexibility in sailing in any
direction - MOVEABLE BOOM
- Combination of SAIL ORIENTATION AND KEEL BOARD dictates boat direction
2000 B.C. China – not well documented
• 200 B.C.
• China – pumping water
• Middle East – grinding grain
• Wind energy directly converted to end use
• Poorly documented
• 644 A.D.
• Persia – first historical reference
• 950 A.D.
• Sketches from Seistan, Persia
• Vertical axis windmills
Mythical flight who flew near to the sun. He created designs of hang gliders , helicopters and other flying machines but didn"t make them since he didn"t have the engineering skills to do so. Otto lilienthal, created 2000 glider flights from his own designs but died in a glider crash in 1886 in a glider mishap. Fluids that are moving faster tend to have lower pressure. Wings are shaped in a special way, so that the air moves faster over the top of the wing than underneath. Hence at the top of the wing there tends to be lower pressure and the bottom tends to have higher pressure, which creates a pressure gradient force pushing upwards. The wing experiences lift and the flight is enabled. This provides lift, which enables a plane to rise or a sailboat to move. Moving from high to low pressure pressure gradient force.