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Lecture

Lecture 2

3 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA09H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin

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Lecture 2: Global Wind Circulation
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
4 layers:
oTroposphere
oStratosphere
oMesosphere
oThermosphere
Wind Primer
What is wind?
Movement of air in an ordered fashion
Cannot see, but can feel the effect of wind
What causes air to move
oAlways moving from high to low pressure
oCalled gradient pressure force
oDifference in air pressure, vertical or horizontal
oDifferences in pressure forms a pressure gradient
oIf differences is greater between the isobars, the pressure gradient is weaker
Coriolis force
oDue to rotation of earth
oThe fictitious force due to rotation of earth
oIn NH causes a deflection of wind to the right of motion, to the left in the SH
oFormulated by Gaspard Coriolis in 1835, described by George Hadley
oAt equator, no coriolis force
oCoriolis force increases as latitude increases
Summary facts:
oPGF always directed from higher to lower pressure
oSteep PG indicate strong PGF and high winds
Geostrophic winds
oBalance between PGF and Coriolis gives you geostrophic winds
oChart: 3 pressure levels, have 2 forces acting on it
From balance of PGF and Coriolis you get geostrophic winds
Surface winds
oGeostrophic winds is typical 1 km or so above the Earths surface
oBelow 1 km the wind is influenced by friction (humans, buildings)
oBalance between PGF, Coriolis and friction gives you surface wind
oHigher pressure system, air moving clockwise
oLow pressure system, air moving counterclockwise
oConvergence- all winds into the centre of low pressure system at surface, top is divergence
oDivergence- all winds moving away from centre in high pressure at surface, top is
convergence
Global Circulation
Global scare: ~10 000 of km
There is more energy received at the equator because of the angle of the sun
We have more energy in the polar regions
One cell theory
oAll air rises at the pole
Atmospheric heat transport
oSensible heat- can feel (suns ray)
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Description
Lecture 2: Global Wind Circulation Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere 4 layers: o Troposphere o Stratosphere o Mesosphere o Thermosphere Wind Primer What is wind? Movement of air in an ordered fashion Cannot see, but can feel the effect of wind What causes air to move o Always moving from high to low pressure o Called gradient pressure force o Difference in air pressure, vertical or horizontal o Differences in pressure forms a pressure gradient o If differences is greater between the isobars, the pressure gradient is weaker Coriolis force o Due to rotation of earth o The fictitious force due to rotation of earth o In NH causes a deflection of wind to the right of motion, to the left in the SH o Formulated by Gaspard Coriolis in 1835, described by George Hadley o At equator, no coriolis force o Coriolis force increases as latitude increases Summary facts: o PGF always directed from higher to lower pressure o Steep PG indicate strong PGF and high winds
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