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Lecture 11

Lecture 11

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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA09H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin

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Lecture 11: Changing Winds: Global Climatic Change
What does climate mean?
Climate vs. weather
Weather- what is it like outside?
Climate
oWhat is it usually like outside?
oDescription of typical weather conditions for location and time of year
oBased on statistics accumulated over long period of time (at least 30 years)
Timeframe between weather and climate
To know weather, have to have a sense of climate of particular region
Torontos climate for July
30 years mean climate of Toronto is 22.2
Weather can report max, min temperature and rain
To report extremes, need more time period change of temperature- climate
Midlatitude cities have the most distinct 4 seasons
What factors influence climate?
Latitude
oIncident radiation from sun
oHow much sunlight you get in terms of which latitude you are in
oIn subtropics, they get almost 2 hrs less of sunlight than Toronto
Global circulation
oPrevailing winds, jet streams, ocean currents
oBecause position of jet stream, we sometimes feel milder/colder winter
Air masses
oTransport of warm or cold, moist or dry air
oKnown 7 air masses, they affect climate of North America
Geography
oGeography of Toronto is unique because we have Oakridge moraine surrounding the city,
preventing Toronto from getting all the lake affect snow
Land cover
oAlbedo, evepotranspiration, heat capacity
oHigher amount of precipitation
What is a feedback?
2 types
oPositive
oNegative
Change in A will cause change in B, that change in B will cause change in A in that same direction
it is called position feedback, if opposite direction- negative feedback
Albedo
Highest Albedo for fresh snow
Thick clouds are higher reflective
Thin clouds have lower Albedo
Warming causes reduction of ice and snow, less ice and snow reduces reflectivity, which causes
more warming= positive feedback
Increase temperature increase water vapour increase in temperature
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Description
Lecture 11: Changing Winds: Global Climatic Change What does climate mean? Climate vs. weather Weather- what is it like outside? Climate o What is it usually like outside? o Description of typical weather conditions for location and time of year o Based on statistics accumulated over long period of time (at least 30 years) Timeframe between weather and climate To know weather, have to have a sense of climate of particular region Torontos climate for July 30 years mean climate of Toronto is 22.2 Weather can report max, min temperature and rain To report extremes, need more time period change of temperature- climate Midlatitude cities have the most distinct 4 seasons What factors influence climate? Latitude o Incident radiation from sun o How much sunlight you get in terms of which latitude you are in o In subtropics, they get almost 2 hrs less of sunlight than Toronto Global circulation o Prevailing winds, jet streams, ocean currents o Because position of jet strea
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