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Lecture 2

EESA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Industrial Revolution, Dander, Asbestosis


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Silvija Stefanovic
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2 EESA10 1/18/2012 3:57:00 PM
Lecture 2: Air pollution
Aisec Toronto
Case Study 1: London Smog
Landmark in air pollution
In creating loss and actions for air pollution
The tremendous number of gases of different kinds started during the
industrial revolution
Since the industrial revolution, the amount of gases and level of
contamination was very high
One of the biggest events was London Smog which happened in 1953
This event lasted no longer than 5-6 days
There was a lot of fog and moist air during this smog
The industry relied on the burning of coal which was called “soft coal”
This soft coal contained high quantities of sulfur which released
sulfur dioxide
The smog was very thick during this time that it darkened the sky
during the day
People got choked due to the large amounts of sulfur in the air
During this period of 4 days, about 4000 people died due adverse affect of
sulfur gases
The two components in smog (sulfur and smog) was the most responsible
London fog was the landmark for smog

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The British government implemented „British clean air act‟ and this was one
of the first acts passed during that era
Coal was replaced with other forms of fossil fuels
Case Study 2: Indonesian Fires
Very common practice in this tropical forests was „slash and burn‟
This means initiative fire to burn the trees and clear land
In 1997, the monsoon season came later than expected and it was a very
dry year
People lost control of the fire as the area burnt was tremendous
One of the aircrafts crashed just because of this smog in the air
Monsoons arrived and instigated the fire but similar events took place in
1998
Airborne Hazards
Outdoor Air Pollution
The natural sources (volcanoes which release gases, vegetation)
Human sources are divided into stationary (industries) and mobile
(transportation)
The common gases are carbon dioxide etc
This forms different kinds of gases as well and particulates as well
In Asthma, condition is worsened due to various air pollutants in
outdoor air
The industrialized countries have a high amount of Asthma patients

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Lecture 2 EESA10 3
Chronic bronchitis is promoted by sulfur dioxide and smoking
Shortness of breath, or Pulmonary emphysema is promoted by
natural gases
Other illnesses include lung cancer, heart disease (direct cause in
air pollution and worsens existing patient cases), toxic poisoning
(carbon dioxide), eye irritation (watery eyes and prolonged
irritation), birth defects (air pollution)
Seven pollutants in Outdoor Air Pollution
Particulate matter is particulates suspended into the air which includes dust,
smoke and liquids as well
Smaller microbes particulates are more dangerous i.e. 2.5 because
they can reach further in our body
Internal combustion is within the house (?)
Different toxicity of each of these components in particulate matter
Some are released from the ground but some are formed in the air
(sulfur gases or metals in atmosphere)
Nitric acid is developed when several gases are dissolved in water
and this can damage lens, buildings, plants, water etc (ACID RAIN)
Carbon Monoxide
CO, which is colorless and odorless
The person exposed to lower levels of carbon monoxide may
confuse the gas with flu or food poisoning
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