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Week 9 Lecture

Environmental Science
Course Code
Jovan Stefanovic

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Foodborne Hazards and Human Health
It must be something I ate”
Foodborne illnesses
¢ Transmissible
l Bacteria
Escherichia coli
Clostridium b o tulin u m (Botulism)
Salmo n ell a
Listeria mo n o cyto g enes (Listeriosis)
l Viruses
l Parasit es
¢ Nontransmis sible
l Shellfish-as s ociated toxins
l Color ad ditives
l Obesit y
l Diabetes
l Organic food
l Bioen gine ered foo d s
Transmissible Foo d b orne illnes s es
Typ es of food
Foo d that co n tain high levels of protein c a n e a sily b e soil ed if left at roo m
temperature Me a t, re a dy to e a t foo d, milk, d airy pro d u cts, u n p asteurised
fr uit an d v egetable juic e s, raw or u n d erco ok ed eg g s, chicken, tu n a, p o tato
an d ma c a ro ni salads, cre a m filled p astries, fr esh pro d u c e , spic e s, ch o colate,
se afo o d
¢ Careles s foo d h an dling (h ow cle a n is o ur kitchen?, food stan ding to o long o n
the roo m temperature, impro p er co o king, co n taminated cut ti ng b o ards an d
kit chen to ols wo o d en b o ards are b et t er)
Symptoms of Foo d b orne illnes s
¢ Diarr h o e a, ab d o minal crampin g, fever, vo miti n g, h e a da c he, someti mes
bloo d in the sto ol
¢ Usually last only a d ay or two someti mes 7-1 0 d ays
¢ For most p eo ple n o t life thre a tenin g
May b e life thre a tening to vulnerable po p ulatio n s severe in the yo u n g
children, the v ery old an d p eo ple wit h c ertain dise a ses an d co n ditio n s such as
liver dise a se, iron disorder, diabetes, c a nc er.
Preventio n of Foo d b orne illnes s es
¢ In su p ermarket always che c k for ex piratio n d ate, che ck if pro d u ct is
damaged, if suspicio u s d o nt b u y it, che ck colo ur of me a t
¢ Safe storage h ave it in the rig h t pla c e, if food was froz e n fre e z e it
¢ Safe foo d p reparation d o nt co n taminate cut ti ng board
¢ Ke e p everythin g cle a n d o nt clut t er kitchen, dilute ble a c h wit h water,

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¢ Keep hot food hot and cold food cold
¢ Cook properly
¢ Proper storage of leftovers no longer than 48 hours (3 days max)
¢ Wash hands
Bacteria: Escherichia coli
¢ Food poisoning usually associated with eating unwashed vegetables and
meat contaminated post-slaughter
¢ Grounded beef
¢ Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, damage of the kidneys
¢ Complications Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in which the red blood cells are
destroyed and kidneys fail (2-7% cases)
Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
¢ Rare but serious illness (fatal)
¢ Nerve toxin of bacterium Clostridium botulinum
¢ Caused by the toxin made by C. botulinum, not by the bacterium itself
¢ Commercially canned goods undergo "botulinum cook" at 121 °C (250 °F)
for 3 minutes
¢ Home-canned foods
¢ Unusual sources:
ol Garlic or herbs stored covered in oil in jars to be preserved
ol Improperly handled baked potatoes wrapped in aluminu m foil ,
ol Home-canned or fermented fish
Main kinds of botulism
1.Foodborne bo tulism
2.Wound botulism = clustered botulism in wounds and then produce toxin
inside the wounded tissues, and this toxin is causing t he botulism; quite of ten
during the WWI because of the erupt of antibiotics
3. Infant botulism = botulism found in soil; dormant state and can be consumed
from the soil, especially children are found to be more exposed to it
Symptoms of Foodborne botulism
¢ Occur between 1236 hours after consuming the botulinum toxin
¢ Double and/or blurred vision
¢ Difficulty swallowing, severe constipation
¢ Muscle weakness, lead to body paralysis
¢ Respiratory failure, breathing problems
Bacteria: Salmonella often seen in children
¢ Salmonella bacteria are found naturally in the intestines of animals,
(especially poultry and swine), birds, reptiles, some pets and some humans
¢ The bacteria can also be found in the environment
¢ People who eat food contaminated by Salmonella can become ill with
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