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EESA10H3 Lecture Notes - Ozone Depletion, Water Vapor, Fluorine

Environmental Science
Course Code
Jovan Stefanovic

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Global Climate Change and Human Health
The Earths natural green-house effect
Energy from the Sun warms the Earths surface
Energy radiate back toward space
Water vapor (clouds), CO2, and other gasses are heated
They radiate heat (longer-wavelength) in all directions (space or warms the air and the Earths
Green house gases
Water vapor
CH4 – concentration in air is very small
N2Oconcentration in air is very small
Atmospheric CO2 level and global temperature
Concentration of the greenhouse gases are directly proportional to temperature
Processes affecting increase of green house gases
Fossil fuels
oElectricity generated by coal42%
oTransportation 24%
oIndustrial process 20%
oResidential and commercial uses 14%
Clearing and burning forests and grass landsslashing and burning forests release carbon dioxide
into the atmosphere
Raising large number of livestock (methane)manure releases methane when decomposed
Planting of ricenitrogen gases are released to fertilize rice
Inorganic fertilizersnitrogen fertilizers
Largest emitters of CO2
1. China and Taiwan 24.4 %
2. US 22.2%
3. European Union 14.7%
4. Russia 5.6%
5. India 4.9%
6. Japan 4.6%
7. Germany 3.1 %
8. Canada 2.3% (four times the global average)
Present problems
20th century was the hottest century in the past 1000 years
Since 1861 the average global temperature of the troposphere has risen 0.70C
20 warmest years occurred since 1980
Glaciers and floating sea ice are melting and shrinking
During the last century average sea level rose by 0.1-0.2 m
Harmful or beneficial effects
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