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Lecture

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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic

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EESA Exam Review
Lecture 1 - Environmental Health Threats
What is Environmental Health
Environmental health comprises the parts of human health, disease and injuries that are
determined or influenced by environmental factors
Environmental factors include chemical, physical, biological and social agents (housing,
urban development, land use, transportation
Environmental health threats: smog, air pollution
Not everyone gets sick from environmental factors
Not only environment effects health, genes can play a role as well
What is Environment?
Environment is everything that affects an organism
Environmental factors that effect human health include air, water, soil and manmade
environment (created by society)
Environmental Crisis: Human Alteration of Earth
We change the environment through human activities
Atmosphere: Carbon dioxide increased 30% since the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution
Geosphere: 1/3 to ½ the land surface has been transformed by human action
Biosphere: mining area
Industrialization: cutting and clearing forests
Overpopulation: over consumption
Declining health of other organisms is the clearest indicator of environmental threats to
human health
Factors effecting human health include increased UV, traces of toxic chemicals, infections
(fungi and bacteria), predators
Environmental Health
Environmental factors are responsible for 25% of all preventable diseases
Diarrhea and respiratory infections are the main effects of environmental factors
difficult to assess - difficult to prove that air pollution or environment cause diseases
There is a difference between the occurrence of environmental diseases between people
of different social class, race and developing and developed countries, kills kids in
Africa and asia bvut is treatable in North America
Chart of 1992 - Hispanic are mostly affected by particulates, carbon monoxide, the
Ozone, lead, African-americans are highly effected by sulfur dioxide while whites are
not as effected by any
African-americans and Hispanic are found to have death and hospitalization rates due to
asthma 3-5 times higher than the rest of New York city residents
www.notesolution.com
Types of Hazards
Chemical (in air, water, soil and food)
Biological (bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, animals such as bees and poisonous
snacks)
Cultural/social (unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, poverty,
smoking which can be voluntary or involuntary)
Physical (radiation, fire, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake)
Everyday Carcinogens
Sandra Steingraber claims some cancers and other health problems are related to
environmental conditions
Claim remains controversial, some scientists argue her claim is very strong and not
scientific, while others agree with her
Evidence linking cancer to the environment:
Cancer registries: measure the incidence of cancer in our country and show that non-
tobacco related cancer has been rising in all age groups in both genders and has been
apparent ever since the 1970s.
Computer mapping: takes data from cancer registries and plot where the incidences occur
on geographic areas, showed that places that use more pesticides have higher cancer
rates
Our own bodies: there are many chemical residues in or bodies that partition themselves
in different parts of the body. There are windows of vulnerability that we go though in
which at different ages we are most sensitive to different amounts of chemicals that
set us up for future risk of cancers
Animal studies: animals go through the same parallel epidemics that humans go through
and animals who live in more prestigious places do not have cancer while other
animals do
Occupational risk: farmers, gold course supervisors, pesticide applicators have an
increased rate because they come in contact with pesticides more often
Dogs who have weed killers in backyards are more likely to have chances of cancer
There is a contamination pyramid from plants to animals and dioxin in breast milk
Lecture 2 - Airborne Hazards and Human Health
Case Study 1: London Smog
Lasted two weeks in decemeber 1952
Weather had some impact
London is known for ists humid air and during those 15 days, temperatures were low,
humidity high and air was still. Cold wearger increased demand for heating though
coal burning (major source of energy at that time)
Huge amount of ash, particulate matter and sulphuric acid was released in a short period
of time through coal burning (industries had to burn coal as well)
Smog was the cause of about 4000 deaths in 6 days as a result of air pollution
www.notesolution.com
Peak of number of deaths is on the same day as peak of sulfur dioxide and smoke
Crisis solved on its won because of change in climate
Case 2: Indonesian Fires 1997
Case of slash and burn practice, cut down all trees and burn forest in order to prepare for
agriculture. Common in tropical countries
During 1997, rainfall was late and people continuously slashed and burned so fire spread
rapidly
Problem was solved itself when the rain came
Huge amount of particulate matter (ashes) were released into the atmosphere
About 20 million people needed help for respiratory problems
Airborne Hazards
Out door and indoor air pollution affect our health
Outdoor air pollution
Can be divided into human sources and natural souces
Human sources can be divided into satationary(industries) and mobile(vehicles)
All these sources produce similar primary air pollutants
Primary air pollutants react with normal chemicals in the atmosphere to produce
secondary air pollutants
Health effects depend on the dose or concentration and start with non-severe symptoms
(flu, irritiation of respiratory system and eyes)
Primary effects include toxic poisoning, cancer, birth defects, eye irritation, irritation of
the respiratory system, increased risk of heart disease, aggravation of asthma and
emphysema
Seven common outdoor air pollutants are particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen
oxides, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds (voc), lead [primary] and ground
level ozone [secondary]
Particulate matter
Particles found in the ait (dust, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets)
Both liquid and solid forms
Released by vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, stone crashing, burning
Some formed in air, not through direct human activity
Cause serious health effects
Smaller particulates are able to reach airway openings in lungs
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Odourless, colourless gas
Many of us exposed to slight concentrations of carbon monoxide
Caused by incomplete burning of carbon containing fuels
Released by heaters, wood and gas stoves, fireplaces, water heaters, automobile exhaust
and tobacco smoke
www.notesolution.com

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Description
EESA Exam Review Lecture 1 - Environmental Health Threats What is Environmental Health Environmental health comprises the parts of human health, disease and injuries that are determined or influenced by environmental factors Environmental factors include chemical, physical, biological and social agents (housing, urban development, land use, transportation Environmental health threats: smog, air pollution Not everyone gets sick from environmental factors Not only environment effects health, genes can play a role as well What is Environment? Environment is everything that affects an organism Environmental factors that effect human health include air, water, soil and manmade environment (created by society) Environmental Crisis: Human Alteration of Earth We change the environment through human activities Atmosphere: Carbon dioxide increased 30% since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution Geosphere: 13 to the land surface has been transformed by human action Biosphere: mining area Industrialization: cutting and clearing forests Overpopulation: over consumption Declining health of other organisms is the clearest indicator of environmental threats to human health Factors effecting human health include increased UV, traces of toxic chemicals, infections (fungi and bacteria), predators Environmental Health Environmental factors are responsible for 25% of all preventable diseases Diarrhea and respiratory infections are the main effects of environmental factors difficult to assess - difficult to prove that air pollution or environment cause diseases There is a difference between the occurrence of environmental diseases between people of different social class, race and developing and developed countries, kills kids in Africa and asia bvut is treatable in North America Chart of 1992 - Hispanic are mostly affected by particulates, carbon monoxide, the Ozone, lead, African-americans are highly effected by sulfur dioxide while whites are not as effected by any African-americans and Hispanic are found to have death and hospitalization rates due to asthma 3-5 times higher than the rest of New York city residents www.notesolution.comTypes of Hazards Chemical (in air, water, soil and food) Biological (bacteria, viruses, parasites, allergens, animals such as bees and poisonous snacks) Culturalsocial (unsafe working conditions, poor diet, drugs, drinking, driving, poverty, smoking which can be voluntary or involuntary) Physical (radiation, fire, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake) Everyday Carcinogens Sandra Steingraber claims some cancers and other health problems are related to environmental conditions Claim remains controversial, some scientists argue her claim is very strong and not scientific, while others agree with her Evidence linking cancer to the environment: Cancer registries: measure the incidence of cancer in our country and show that non- tobacco related cancer has been rising in all age groups in both genders and has been apparent ever since the 1970s. Computer mapping: takes data from cancer registries and plot where the incidences occur on geographic areas, showed that places that use more pesticides have higher cancer rates Our own bodies: there are many chemical residues in or bodies that partition themselves in different parts of the body. There are windows of vulnerability that we go though in which at different ages we are most sensitive to different amounts of chemicals that set us up for future risk of cancers Animal studies: animals go through the same parallel epidemics that humans go through and animals who live in more prestigious places do not have cancer while other animals do Occupational risk: farmers, gold course supervisors, pesticide applicators have an increased rate because they come in contact with pesticides more often Dogs who have weed killers in backyards are more likely to have chances of cancer There is a contamination pyramid from plants to animals and dioxin in breast milk Lecture 2 - Airborne Hazards and Human Health Case Study 1: London Smog Lasted two weeks in decemeber 1952 Weather had some impact London is known for ists humid air and during those 15 days, temperatures were low, humidity high and air was still. Cold wearger increased demand for heating though coal burning (major source of energy at that time) Huge amount of ash, particulate matter and sulphuric acid was released in a short period of time through coal burning (industries had to burn coal as well) Smog was the cause of about 4000 deaths in 6 days as a result of air pollution www.notesolution.comPeak of number of deaths is on the same day as peak of sulfur dioxide and smoke Crisis solved on its won because of change in climate Case 2: Indonesian Fires 1997 Case of slash and burn practice, cut down all trees and burn forest in order to prepare for agriculture. Common in tropical countries During 1997, rainfall was late and people continuously slashed and burned so fire spread rapidly Problem was solved itself when the rain came Huge amount of particulate matter (ashes) were released into the atmosphere About 20 million people needed help for respiratory problems Airborne Hazards Out door and indoor air pollution affect our health Outdoor air pollution Can be divided into human sources and natural souces Human sources can be divided into satationary(industries) and mobile(vehicles) All these sources produce similar primary air pollutants Primary air pollutants react with normal chemicals in the atmosphere to produce secondary air pollutants Health effects depend on the dose or concentration and start with non-severe symptoms (flu, irritiation of respiratory system and eyes) Primary effects include toxic poisoning, cancer, birth defects, eye irritation, irritation of the respiratory system, increased risk of heart disease, aggravation of asthma and emphysema Seven common outdoor air pollutants are particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, volatile organic compounds (voc), lead [primary] and ground level ozone [secondary] Particulate matter Particles found in the ait (dust, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets) Both liquid and solid forms Released by vehicles, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, stone crashing, burning Some formed in air, not through direct human activity Cause serious health effects Smaller particulates are able to reach airway openings in lungs Carbon Monoxide (CO) Odourless, colourless gas Many of us exposed to slight concentrations of carbon monoxide Caused by incomplete burning of carbon containing fuels Released by heaters, wood and gas stoves, fireplaces, water heaters, automobile exhaust and tobacco smoke www.notesolution.com
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