EESA11H3 Lecture Notes - Red Tide, Macrophyte, Hypolimnion

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
Environmental Science
EESA11 Lec 7 Possible Questions
1) Provide the basic morphological/physiological features of the diatoms and the
dinoflagellates. What is a red tide?
a. Dinoflagellates has 2 flagella, long clusters of protein strands
b. A red tide is a bloom of a dinoflagellate (Gonyaulax), it produces a toxin that
accumulates in the fish and shellfish that eat them
2) Why cyanobacteria are characterized as “bad” algae? Which are the factors that favour
cyanobacteria dominance?
a. Cyanobacteria have toxins they release that attack the liver (hepatotoxins) and
nervous system (neurotoxins)
b. Favours factoring cyanobacteria dominance:
i. High temperature optima
ii. Low light-energy requirements
iii. Superior uptake kinetics
iv. N2-fixation
v. Buoyancy hypothesis
vi. Less susceptible to zooplankton grazing
vii. Excretion of organic compounds to suppress growth of other algae
viii. Produce toxins
3) Provide the definition of eutrophication. Which are the symptoms of cultural
a. The process when a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients,
stimulating the growth of aquatic plant life, usually resulting in the depletion of
dissolved oxygen\
b. Symptoms of cultural eutrophication:
i. Increase in phytoplankton standing crop (biomass) and biomass at other
trophic levels
ii. Algal blooms
iii. Massive growth of cyanobacteria
iv. Complete oxygen depletion and high nutrient concentration
v. H2S, NH4, non-mineralized organic matter, CH4 found in hypolimnion as
a result of anaerobic respiration
vi. Invertebrates and fish communities change
vii. Macrophytes and periphyton increase
4) Provide Liebig’s law of limiting factor.
a. The global velocity of the reaction depends on the scarcest substrate
5) Why do we use the Vollenweider plots?
a. For calculation of the trophic state of a temperate lake based on the most usual
limnological variables
6) Why high turbidity is considered an undesirable aquatic ecosystem property?
a. The sunlight reaching aquatic plants will be limited and will stunt their growth
b. Fine suspended solids may also clog fish gills and harm their respiration
7) Why does the Ontario Ministry of the Environment regularly monitor the Escherichia
coli concentrations in Lake Ontario?
a. E. Coli can cause several intestinal and extraintestinal infections UTI,
meningitis, peritonitis, mastitis, septicemia and gram-negative pneumonia
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