EESA11H3 Lecture Notes - Wood Preservation, Rotavirus, Antibiotics

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
Environmental Science
EESA11 Lec 11
“Some important world standards”
o The World Health Organization (WHO)
Set up guidelines for drinking-water quality become the internationoal
reference point for standards setting and drinking water safety
o The European Union (EU)
o U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
o Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME)
Set up guidelines for Saudi Arabia
Types of Microbial Pathogens
o Bacteria
Single-celled organisms
E.g. cholera, E. Coli
Detection needs growth in specific media; cell-division produces
colonies” or measurable enzymatic reactions; colony characteristics and
unique metabolic abilities identify the organism
o Viruses
Protein- packaged RNA or DNA
Norwalk, rotavirus
Detection requires cell-culture techniques or PCR (polymerase chain
reaction); PCR cannot determine viability
Coliphage = type of virus that attacks E. Coli is an indicator of the
potential for a virus which is specific to humans to also be present
o Protozoa
Single-celled organisms
E.g. giardia, cryptosporidium
Detection requires identification of individual organisms, usually by IFA
(immunofluorescent antibody techniques); IFA can NOT determine
IFA techniques concentrate particles from water, separate target from
other particles, identify organism by epifluorescence
Solution to Pathogen Monitoring:
o Indicator organisms presence of an indicator organism indicates a pathogenic
organism may also be present
o Treatment techniques protects the public health by providing treatment to
control pathogenic organisms, even if undetectable
Treatment of drinking water
o Chlorination most common and technologically simple means of disinfection
Creates own contaminants, disinfection-by-products (DBPs):
Chloroform is made the most; animal carcinogen
Total trihalomethanes (THMs) primary water pollutant
Alternative disinfectants
o Chlorine dioxide destroys pathogenic microbes, but creates chlorite
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