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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Deirdre Flynn

Lecture 2 REM - Theme: loss of faith or religion - Rather than occupying the centre,The singer is huddled in the corner. - Corner is where he feels lost, confused and alienated *but his corner si everyones spotlight+? - Like DG, everybody else sees him in the spotlight - Without his religion, lost his system of beliefs, dont know if he can go on - The song gestures to most dramatic crisis in 20 century: loss of in a single, commonly held belief or loss in a transcendental certitude - With this loss, any number of beliefs pour in to fill the void and calm the anxiety - It is the belief that matters not god..> humans need to belief something to make order of the world which otherwise border anarchy Myths: th - Much like religion functioned prior to mid 19 century, these myths all forecast a state not yet reached - Myths of modernity - Regardless of the content of our beliefs, whether it is on the sacred or secular, we will have beliefs!--? What exactly is at stake in embracing different beliefs? - How does the faith in transcedental differ from faith in imminent [secular]? Dorian Gray- does the faith in transcedental differ from faith in imminent[secular]? - Cautionary tail of effects of embracing faith in secular and embracing myths of modernity that make secular seem transcendental..i.e perfection, progress. These are all things DG embrances - Potential consequences in putting our faith in these myths that shore up our secular beliefs - These consequences are not promising Faith : - confidence, reliance and trust ..often used ot refer to religion - F & B have overlap: both involve something we choose to believe in the absence of evidence. Its achoice.a choice in absence of evidence. - Both stem from acceptance from external authority.. - Both as allowing to make mistakes and that allow us to see that these mistakes dotn permanently cloud our future. We can do something and take corrective action..i.e promise not to do again - With complex series of overlapping beliefs, that constitutes a faith system. - Faith : overarching narrative connecting distant events and suggests many ways of acting that may not seem the best and easiest to act in a moment - : provides us with a system of principles which are especially useful when we are confused, unsure of what to do. These principles guide us in our actions and offers us as subtle basis of conduct. Helps us prioritize decisions and helps us assess their value - Secular structure than functions as belief system: GPA - GPA is not god, it may seem to function that way, u can vow, appease, sacrifice, pray but nominating the GPA as something transcendent ,anything can take its place and replace your GPA as transcendent system Nobody ever sees him, it s mysterious, powerful figure everyone worships him. He is the base structure trying to hide in the superstructures image of the gloriousness. th st Paradox of 20 and 21 century: even if u lsoe your faith system, u are still left for a need to believe. What will u believe? We are still living amongst myths Principles are guidelines to choices and decisions that we consult independent of circumstances. What we continue to do even if circumstances warrant some other action. If u dont stand for something, ull go for anything. Principles also have a liability. Apple company doesnt necessarily act on principles but act on capitalizing, capitalize on what is economically beneficial..if they always operated on principles, they might lose a lot of opportunities and money..similarly us, we might miss opportunities.. Although when we might not want to act on principle, if we chose not to, it will not align with the patterns of actions that we have taken thus far. Religion is the best known example fo any faith and belief systems. They give us structurally orchestrated terms of conduct. In 19 century, faith in the transcedental was challenged from every dire. 2 people that had fundamental role in challenging religion Darwin: N.S not god enables some animals to survive. Marx: social superstructure naturlaizes,structuralizes carefully maintained inequalities. The place in society is not created by god, reinforced by.. Others who challenged transcendental certitude : Freud and Nietzsceh Freud - Revolutionized relationship between psyche and soul - Posited the existence of the unconscious: aspects of ourselves not available to conscious thought but still had influence on it. - The unconscious is real and shapes our daily reality but does so in a way that we cant be conscious of. It takes the place of soul in religious god. But unlike the soul which connects us to god, the unconscious is not at all separate from the secular - It is constituted by repressed reactions to our secular rule. Our daily experiences change our conscious and inturn our unconscious effects our conscious - The unconscious isnot accessible - Image of iceberg: how larger the unconscious is than conscious. The unconscious is all the repressed urges - Mirrors Marxs ideological theory in a way: what is acceptable is the superstructure, what is unacceptable is the base structure and repressed.also, those who have the power determine what is acceptable and what should be repressed. - Determining what is acceptable is not for benefit of the society or child but to protect their own agendas and hide the exploitation of labor so that basestrucure is intact. - Our unconscious is determined by mores and norms of day- thats how civilizing and socializing works - Therefore secular actually inavdes what previous called soul. Nietszche: 4 final architecture of modernity Dangerous slipplery slide in to secular Declared dead of god- more of a warning What he points is that our belief system centred on god has came apart and with this, we are left with only secular domain dna vague sense that everything was our won destiny and have to be figured out.. Olay ad offered a sense of comfort But this center cannot holdLoss of transcendental certitude! In ref to God before 19 century. His truth and essence werenot a matter of this world at all. He was far beyond worl. Therefore, he could never be altered, tainted. Secular vs Religious: - Religion presume a truth beyond this world - Secular presume a truth that is in and of this world= unconscious Even with loss of trans certitude, there is still aneed to belief, relevant today in a world frantic and so changing! Dorian Gray: - A cautionary tale that shows just how bad it can get bad without higher systems that go beyond oneself - Caution: Potential dangers of living Without higher principles and living in a world where the older generations are exploiting the younger for their own pleasures instead of wisdom - Time when only thing that matters is whatever feels good and whatever shores up ones ideal image - Dorain is confused because Henry says beauty and youth are the only things that matter - He wishes his painting was not made - I would give my sould for that - The dealw iht the devil keeps dorian looking charming and beautiful forver - Because he looks beautiful and charming thats what everyone presumes him to be - At first, He assumes pleasure, youth and beauty as his belief system. 1 of 5 criticla moments toward ruin of dorian..ruin of also others around him and encounters - In each of these 5 moments, Dorian refuses to make himself vulnerable to anything other than idealizing gaze of others - He needs to shore up the idea
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