ENGB04H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Trochee, Polysemy, Assonance

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Published on 12 Apr 2018
Lecture 2: The Non-Literal Dimensions of Language
Sound (alliteration, assonance, rhyme, rhythm)
Sight (images) shape on the page
Syntax (sequence of words)
Metaphor (comparison, implicit or explicit)
Polysemy (ambiguity, pun, paradox)
Symbolism (public, cultural, historical, religious, national, private, esoteric)
Rhetorical (argument, persuasion)
a) Syllables + stresses; Accentual-syllabic: Metrical Feet
b) Iambs (-) Trohees (-)
c) Spondees + pyrrhic feet (2 unstressed syllables)
d) Pattern of stresses + feet per line: meter
e) Metrical contract
f) Some common departures; trochaic substitutions, silent unstressed first
g) Feminine endings
h) End-stopped/enjambment
i) Couplets
Non-literal dimensions in language:
One thing that distinguishes poetry from other discourse is that it taps into non-literal
dimensions in language.
o Sound
o A lot of poems use imagery (visually striking images)
o We respond at a deep and unconscious level to stimuli
We like visually concrete details
o Poets often make use of the visual dimension (imagery) in order to bring our full
consciousness into play while we are reading
o Poets make creative use of syntax
We can make simple or complex use of syntax
Often depart in small ways from ordinary sequencing of words
Does it use short sentences or long sentences?
o Metaphor is a linguistic device where we describe something by comparing one
thing to another
Can be explicit or implicit
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Document Summary

Symbolism (public, cultural, historical, religious, national, private, esoteric) Introduce to basic terms in rhythm: notice when the rhythm changes, when the poem departs in rhythm. In most metered poems there are consistent number of syllables in each line, and there is a consistent pattern of accented syllables: e. g. , (cid:862)nature(cid:859)s first gree(cid:374) is gold, /her hardest hue to hold. (cid:863) robert. Frost, (cid:862)nothing gold can tay(cid:863: e. g. , (cid:862)co(cid:373)e li(cid:448)e (cid:449)ith (cid:373)e a(cid:374)d (cid:271)e (cid:373)y love. Nothing gold can stay robert frost, circa 1920: https://rpo. library. utoronto. ca/poems/nothing-gold-can-stay. Iambic structure of poetry draws out an implicit rhythm or undertone of ordinary speech and emphasizes: there is a distinct rhythm in ordinary spoken speech vs. poetic meter. Iambic seems to be natural because it has been conventional for so long (cid:862)the tyger(cid:863) william blake, [1794]: https://www. poetryfoundation. org/poems/43687/the-tyger: tyger, tyger burning bright/in the forest of the night. He uses the tiger to say not to restrict god.

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