1. Direct Discourse:
Directly citing a character’s own words set off from the narration by quotation marks or other indicators like “he said,”
Example: He threw his glove on the pavement, the tears welling in his eyes, and said, “This is it, Rodney. I must ask you
to choose your weapon.”
2. Indirect Discourse:
Speech or thinking of a character rendered in the narrator’s own words.
Example: He threw his glove on the pavement, the tears welling in his eyes, and said that he saw no alternative but that
Rodney should choose his weapon.
3. Free Indirect Discourse:
Third person narration in which a character’s thoughts or expressions are presented in the character’s voice without
being set off by quotation marks or the usual addition of phrases like “he thought” or “she said” and without shifting
into grammatical first-person discourse.”
4. Diegesis: The telling of a story
5. Homodiegetic narrator: character narrator
6. Heterodiegetic narrator: narrator outside world of story
7. Extradiegetic narrator: narrator situated outside of any of the diegetic levels of the narrative.
8. Defining narrative:
“Narrative is the representation of events in time” (Abbott, p. xii).
“*N+arrative is the representation of an event or a series of events. ‘Event’ is the key word here, though some people
prefer the word ‘action.’ Without an event or an action, you may have a ‘description,’ an ‘exposition,’ an ‘argument,’ a
‘lyric,’ some combination of these or something else altogether, but you won’t have narrative” (Abbott, p. 13).
“*N+arrative is the representation of events, consisting of story and narrative discourse; story is an event or sequence of
events (the action); and narrative discourse is those events as represented” (Abbott, p. 19).
9. Story vs. Narrative Discourse:
“The difference between events and their representation is the difference between story (the event or sequence of
events) and narrative discourse (how the story is conveyed)” (Abbott, p. 15).
10. Narrative continuity or coherence:
“A longer text may have thematic coherence, as *T.S. Eliot’s poem+ The Waste Land does, and still lack narrative
coherence. Or a longer text may have nothing but quite recognizable narratives, as does a collection of short stories, and
yet lack sufficient narrative connection between the narratives to be called a single narrative” (Abbott, p. 14).
11. The Mediation (construction) of the story:
“…we never see a story directly, but instead always pick it up through the narrative discourse. The story is always
mediated – by a voice, a style of writing, camera angles, actors’ interpretations – so that what we call the story is really
something that we construct” (Abbott, p. 20). 12. Framing Narrative:
A term used in many ways in discussions of narrrative. “It can refer to the way a shot is framed in a film or, more
broadly, the way a scene is framed in a play or nove. It can refer to the templates , or frames, in our mind that we bring
to a narrative and that are elicited and perhaps manipulated by the text or that impose their own constructions on a
text. Another use of the term refers to any preliminary and/or concluding material in a narrative….*S+uch a frame can be
a framing narrative, that is, a narrative that frames an embedded narrative.
The degree to which a text generates the impression that it is a narrative.
Material outside the narrative that is somehow connected to it.
15. Stream of Consciousness:
“*A+ mode of narration that undertakes to reproduce the full spectrum and continuous flow of a character’s mental
process, in which sense perceptions mingle with conscious and half-conscious thoughts, memories, expectations,
feelings, and random associations.” (Abrams, A Glossary of Literary Terms)
“*T+he way that sequences of words are ordered into phrases, clauses, and sentences.” (Abrams, A Glossary of Literary
The kinds of words, phrases, vocabulary, figurative language, sentence structure, etc. that characterize a writer or
speaker’s style of expression.
18. Narrative voice/Voice: Who we “hear” telling the narrating
First person (“I”) vs. third person (“she”/”he”) vs. 2 person (“you”)
In third person narration, the narrator is often situated outside the world of the story – an external narrator.
19. Focalization: The lens through which we see characters and events in the narrative.
The impression of a sequence of cause and effect.
The narrator’s degree of involvement in the story she/he is telling. This impacts our assessment of the information we
22. Implied Author: “that sensibility (that combination of feeling, intelligence, knowledge, and opinion) that
‘accounts for’ the narrative.” 23. Bildungsroman:
“A German term signifying ‘novel of formation’ or ‘novel of education.’ The subject of these novels is the development
of the protagonist’s mind and character, in the passage from childhood through varied experience—and often through a
spiritual crisis—into maturity, which usually involves recognition of one’s identity and role in the world.” (Abrams, p.
24. Narrative and Time:
“*N+arrative is the principal way in which our species organizes its understanding of time” (Abbott, p. 3)
“*W+hen we read a ‘non-narrative type-text’ like an essay, the only time involved is the time it takes to read, and the
only order is that of the structure of the essay. But when we read a narrative, we are aware of, on the one hand, the
time of reading and on the order in which things are read, and, on the