ENGB35 Jan 23, 2013
With Zuri: asks him for permission to be sold
o According to Locke, cannot give away one‟s own freedom. Is impossible
With Friday: Crusoe just immediately claims him as a slave.
savage barbarians, unredeemably other
savage barbarians, but civilisable
„noble savages‟ (Montaigne, Rousseau)
o Rousseau did not like civilization so he thought the Natives had the right
idea of it,
Crusoe claimed to have the best year of his life with Friday, being able to work on
civilising him. Crusoe chose the second option.
This idea was very popular: the president would give Natives their rights but first
they must become civilised
“I… made it my business to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful,
handy, and helpful”
“[H]is very affections were tied to me like those of a child to a father”
Contrast between Crusoe and his father: Crusoe was willfull and disobeyed his
father. Friday acted as a good child to Crusoe.
o Misbehaving was a sort of European thing
Friday was about 26 when he was rescued. Crusoe had been around the same age
when he was shipwrecked.
Friday is „born‟ into Crusoe‟s reality
Crusoe is trying to redo wrongs
Cannibalism II: what‟s new?
This time, the almost eaten person was a European. This made Crusoe leap into
action because this was just wrong. For one, the man is a European. Secondly,
Friday had said that the savages did not eat Europeans.
o This just sets off Crusoe‟s paranoia. ENGB35 Jan 23, 2013
o All savages are cannibals, all cannibals are evil. Unless Crusoe, who is
„good‟ saves them.
Crusoe is now the Master of the savages AND the Europeans
o Superior to the Spaniard because England is better than all other
countries and Crusoe is an Englishman
Friday‟s father is just kind of an afterthought:
o Friday‟s father is a worry because Crusoe was supposed to be Friday‟s
new father. With his actual father is there, Friday might forget all of
o Master-slave dynamic: the other person may not feel the ties of the loyalty
that the other does.
My island was now people, and I thought myself very rich in subjects (…)
Pirates arrive – you are a pirate when you mutiny
“‟Gentlemen,‟ said I, „do not be surprised at me; perhaps you may have a friend near
you when you did not expect it.‟ „He must be sent directly
Crusoe gets a chance to show his authority over Englishman now.
The pirate takes his hat off to Crusoe = respect
Claims himself as God‟s agent
Agent of the state? No, not really Crusoe. This is just him pushing up his power
o Power and authority? Fiction. In Crusoe‟s case, he invents his
power/authority. There is nothing official about his power at all.
Crusoe thinking himself as Governer of the island gives him the power of life and
death over the pirates, because piracy is a hanging crime.
Beginning of book, Crusoe is judged by God and punished. By the end, in a secular
way, he is now judge and punisher of the pirates on the island.
Crusoe does eventually go back. His island is now populated by Spaniards, some Carib
slaves, and English mutineers. It is a nice little colony.
Friday is ignored at the end of the book. We don‟t really know what happens to
o This makes sense because he is of no real use to Crusoe any more. He‟s
not a monetary worth, which is what Crusoe is interested in.
$225 000 in Crusoe‟s time = about $6 million dollars in Canadian dollars. ENGB35 Jan 23, 2013
o Crusoe did not make „some‟ money, he made money beyond people‟s
Treasure Island (1883)
Periodicals such as Young Folks, Boy’s Own, Girl’s Own
This was a very lucrative business
Treasure Island written for „boy readers‟
o While he did write it for his stepson, he did publish it for money. He earned
himself the most money out of his publications.
Key socio-cultural changes between Robinson Crusoe (1719) and Treasure Island
Middle classes have economic, cultural, and political power
o Robinson Crusoe was written just as this was beginning to crystalize
British Empire formalized; 1880s “High Imperialism”
o Adventure stories teach children the basis for the Empire
o British had right to rule the world
Post-Darwinian crisis of faith
o Crusoe‟s idea of Providence is gone. There is no predestination. Things
occur by chance – Jim Hawkin‟s just „happens‟ to be places
Romance vs. Realism
R.L. Stevenson vs. Henry James
James, “The Art of Fiction” (1884)
o Fiction should be representation o