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lecture 2

Course Code
Holly Luhning

of 3
How they influenced or changed things within each other
Talking about the culture of this period along with literature
Interpersonal and cultural changes
Political issues at the time
Rebellion against the monarchy
The restoration of the monarchy after the civil wars (1642)
1649 - Charles I was killed off, and Cromwell took over
Comes back from France and Samuel Pepys writes his diary
Charles II reinstated in 1660
"The restoration"
A time when new spheres were being defined
There were domestic affairs being handled in Britain while trying to take care of the more "public"
sphere of colonization
Idea of the commonwealth - name of England during this chaotic time, not including all the colonies, a
more localized term
All the scandals of public figures
The Diary wasn't widely read at the time, but he hung out with everyone around town
Upper class maybe took a bath once every 2 weeks
Hygiene was very low
Otherwise every once in 3 - 6 months
London in particular was a very dirty, and unpleasant place to live
Very scandalous
Equated to prostitutes
Women began to perform on stage
Had many affairs with these women
He was a big advocate of the theatre
Because there were so many laws against who could print material
And at the time there wasn't a lot of exposure print
When he reopened the theatre it was a big cultural event
A dull husband, a wife who is running around having affairs, daughters being perused by
A lot of stalk characters
Charles II
A lot of cultural anxiety surrounding that character
There are rules that define who they are
Rejection of strict political rules, of religion
Creating agency in pleasure and sexual life
Lead to people becoming very horrible in character - indulging completely in their desires
Rake - "player", usually more upper class
Tend to be men
Eloquent but precise
Although Josephine by is a female Libertine
Libertine - more of a deliberate rejection of hierarchies and absorbed in the desires of oneself
The libertine or the rake was a source of great cultural interest (debate if they are the same thing)
Strong interest in Elizabethan time
Shakespearean plays were still very popular and being performed
At the time a lot of restoration plays were being produced, but not a lot of new literature was being
Play writes for the first time
Allowed a number of people (including those who weren't previously allowed) started to make a
living, women were just one group who now being involved in this public display in dialogue
A place where upper class would go, but they were higher up in their boxes
Women weren't encouraged to go, and had to be escorted
Often not even watching the play for the most part
Prostitution was highly associated with the theatre, and where people were involved in these
A lot of "back and forth" between the audience and the performers
A place of commerce - selling trinkets and oranges
The reopening of theatres
** Libertine
** Wald - Contagious
Lecture 2 - 13/09
Tuesday, September 13, 2011
10:30 AM
C. de Souza ENGC36H3 Page 1
A place of commerce - selling trinkets and oranges
Intersection of culture and business - a reoccurring theme
lange of exchanges
Exchanges of ideas, new way of thinking, money, commentary on the presentation, sex, cultural
A lens to better understand the period
Connected to the interactions within the theatre
Danger in going into public spaces
The body - the interactions
Brought on by poor hygiene
Thought that there was "bad air" or "bad environments"
Villages were blocked off
Bubonic Plague - repertory disease that was carried by the fleas on rats
Combined with syphilis and malaria
1665 - The Great Plague
You have a tangible idea of fear, fatality, some type of harmful quality
Something to refer back to
Tends to be a lower number in stats compared to other more natural diseases, yet this is so
feared - why? Paradox
Contagion can be used as a metaphor for other societal issues
Controls how we live our lives
The social and emotional implications are reflected in literature
Destroyed the actual city and economics within the city - affecting the nations overall economy
wide devastation
1666 - The great Fire of London
1667 - Paradise Lost
A new player in media, influential
Licensing Act passed
1695 - when print culture began to change
Very strict laws, limitations, constrictions every time something was going to be legally
Crown's political influence was very strong over what was printed
Prior to 1695 there was a company (Stationeries of London?) held a royal charter that they were
the only people who were able to publish, print or trafficked in London
1705 over 70 in JUST LONDON - tripled
Edinburgh another big place
24 legal printing houses in all of England
People who previously didn't have access to materials began to learn how to read (lower
For entertainment and necessity
Ties into idea of business and commerce
Cost went down, although still a luxury
Shift in power a long with more print houses opening
Profession of author became a viable one
People who hadn't written before began to write
Began to have influence
What was being sold was seemed unpredictable
Disrupted hierarchy
Print culture: in general (mid - late 1600s)
Periodical - newspapers
*gaining popularity and influence
2 influence genres
A lot of room to disagree or debate about what was being written
Pros were still written before this period, but with the influx of people writing a lot of
experimentation began to come out
Began to dictate what should be written
Consumers and readers had a large influence
Similar to the internet and bloggers
Mc Dowell proposes that there is a communication circuit which is highly complicated
Readers can influence what they want to buy
Not of upper class
People who were previously thought not to be successful in readership became an agent in this
circuit production
Around 1700s there were theories about these changes
C. de Souza ENGC36H3 Page 2
Not of upper class
Not legitimate prevailers
Reflecting popular tastes
Created their own persona and cast their tastes on the market
Wasn't just authors and readers, there was a complicated circuit with a potential for change
Exposure allowed change and expansion
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