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Lecture 1

Course Code
Michael Wells

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Lecture 1
Before the 18th century, there was no Italy or German nation (there were German colonies)
1710--? Scotland becomes a part of Great Britain (which later turns out to be a mistake, and
sparks separatism)
The idea of nationalism was big in the 18th century
In the 18th century, there existed the idea that novels presented a moral
oLater, these morals were criticized
oIt was questioned whether a particular novel made someone smarter or dumber (ex. Jersey
At the beginning of the 18th century, novels were looked down upon; at the end of the century, it
was deemed a high art form
Adam Smith was an architect of capitalism who writes about the first ideas of free market
In the 18th century, mass public was established
oWho is the public?
Popular culture that can shape an opinion
Ex. Shakespeares public during plays, the public in churches
But for novels, this public was huge
1640-1650 English civil war took place
oFew people could read
oAfter 1800s, literacy rates skyrocketed, especially in Scotland
oGovernments fund public learning
oIn the 1800s the licensing order of 1643 was repealed
Licensing order dictated that if you were to publish something, it had to be passed
by the government censor
New ideas were banned
After it was repealed and more people were reading, there was more freedom to
say what you want
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