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Lecture 2

ENGC44H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Deductive Reasoning, Inductive Reasoning

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Ted Petit

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What is the university?
I. A repository of knowledge.
Libraries, textbooks, professors’ heads.
II. A place where new knowledge gets made.
Research, peer review, publication, conversation
These are in a dynamic relationship; each supports the other.
Raises the questions,
What is knowledge?
How is knowledge made?
How do we know what we know?
Epistemology – the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.
Knowledge is made in two broadly-based ways:
Empirical vs. Speculative
We can divide the entire field of human knowledge into two major categories:
the Humanities and the Empirical Sciences.
Humanities include philosophy, literature, and the visual and performing arts..
Empirical Sciences include two branches:
Natural Sciences, such as biology, chemistry, and physics
Social Sciences, such as economics, sociology, and History.
The humanities generally use the “speculative” approach, while the empirical sciences use the
“empirical” approach.
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