➢ Duke's company was given rights to Shakespeare's plays
➢ Restoration stage comedy is notorious for its sexual innuendo, a feature encouraged by
Charles II himself whose Court was scandalized by sexual debauchery
Period of meriment where sexual liberty, freedom of expression has begun
Female actresses are now allowed to participate in theatre – no longer men playing
Philosophical Currents in 17C England
➢ Virtuouso by Chadwell?
➢ Background information around the time during which Virtuoso was written
➢ Emergence of philosophies which question the traditional privilege given to a Christian
worldview and a single deity
Philosophers like Hobbes, Locke, Spinosa etc.
Areaction against Christianity and the hold it has on the scientific and academic world.
➢ There is also a revival of works by Epicurus and Lucretius; revival of books; revival of
Greek and Roman philosophy stating that the world is just atoms constantly fluxuating.
Epicureus wrote De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things)
Opening scene of Virtuoso has a character quoting from this book
➢ 1650 – Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan
He is saying that we need to listen to the king first, and then the church second in order
to maintain a stable society. If we let our sovereign run the society, it will prevent men's
conflicting views and violence that may errupt as a result. In the past there has been
violence and bloodshed, and therefore this is his solution to the problem.
➢ Other philosophers are branded athesists for questioning the Christian ethos: Pierre
Gassendi, Renee Descartes, John Locke.
17C Science – Natural Philosophy
➢ Science was called Natural Philosophy back then
➢ Now we have very rigid divisions between the humanities and the sciences, which did not
exist back then
➢ Scientific Revolution takes place during this period and it is part of the emerging identity of
science as a discipline with its own paradaigms and language
➢ This is satirized in both Virtuoso and TheAlchemist
➢ The role of the scientist was still un-established & suffered from public suspicion and
➢ There was also this belief/suspicion that this new science was a kind of atheism which is
why Virtuoso begins with a reading from Lucretius
Science and Religion
➢ Not clear whether philosophy is being substituted for Christianity in the Virtuoso
➢ New scientific discoveries were made by Copernicus
➢ People are branded heretics for accepting this viewpoint instead of supporting Christianity
➢ So philosophers become sensitive about offending theAnglican church
The Royal Society
➢ This was the 1 scientific society in England and still exists today
The Microscope and Telescope
➢ Since satires deal with exaggeration, what is its