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Hall and Marston

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Steven Minuk

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Manuscript Transmission How did Horace and Juvenal's documents even end up in England? ➢ Copies (not originals) were made over the centuries (by scholastic commentaries?) ➢ Florilegia – compilations of texts from ancient writers; they were maintained and eventually made their way across the continent reaching England ➢ Ended up in England monasteries ➢ First complete translation of Horace' satires  were made by Thomas Drant in 1566 – "Medicinable Morals" was the name of the translation.  First translation was associated with biblical prophecy  Satire's role is to cure vice and folly? ➢ First complete translation of Juvenal's satires  were made by Robert Stapylton in 1647 England in the 1590s ➢ This is the late Renaissance in England ➢ Queen Elizabeth – is the monarch and at the end of her reign (1603)  Deals with many problems  Religious conflicts during all of 17 century (Catholicism vs. Protestantism)  Elizabeth tries to find middleground to solve conflict  Combines catholic ceremony and protestant teaching into theAnglican Church  Excluded some Catholics and Calvinist Puritans. London in the 1590s ➢ London grows rapidly in 16 century from 50 000 in 1530s to 20 000 by 1600 ➢ increase in mercantile economy = influx of young men ➢ Protestant refugees coming in because London is sort of a safe haven ➢ City is not prepared to deal with a large number of immigrants and as a result they have sanitation problems. They eventually introduce curfews – it becomes a bit of a dangerous place. There is no police force. The Elizabethan Court ➢ The court was the central institution of Renaissance states, linking the world of politics and culture. ➢ Court life was a theatrical spectacle ➢ Nobles were at the top with high status Tensions that Shape Elizabethan Satire ➢ Religious tensions btwn Puritans, Protestants,Anglicans, Catholics, Presbyterians ➢ Economic upheaval that introduces new classes into the social order and uproots old ones. ➢ Distrust of wealth as a corrupting influence on sexual morality and traditional family bonds.  Another theme that both Hall and Marston include in their satires  Wealth/money corrupts  Discouragement of moving up the social ladder (discourage social mobility)  These themes come up in Juvenal's writing as well. ➢ Concern that it is difficult now to distinguish btwn good and bad, rich and poor. ➢ Rivalries btwn satirists concerning appropriate language and style in their writings, presentation and learning. Hall and Marston ➢ Their satires (in 1590s) cause such controversy that all books had to be seized and further satires could not be written unless approved by privy council  So it wasn't Shakespeare that caused controversy,
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