How did Horace and Juvenal's documents even end up in England?
➢ Copies (not originals) were made over the centuries (by scholastic commentaries?)
➢ Florilegia – compilations of texts from ancient writers; they were maintained and eventually
made their way across the continent reaching England
➢ Ended up in England monasteries
➢ First complete translation of Horace' satires
were made by Thomas Drant in 1566 – "Medicinable Morals" was the name of the
First translation was associated with biblical prophecy
Satire's role is to cure vice and folly?
➢ First complete translation of Juvenal's satires
were made by Robert Stapylton in 1647
England in the 1590s
➢ This is the late Renaissance in England
➢ Queen Elizabeth – is the monarch and at the end of her reign (1603)
Deals with many problems
Religious conflicts during all of 17 century (Catholicism vs. Protestantism)
Elizabeth tries to find middleground to solve conflict
Combines catholic ceremony and protestant teaching into theAnglican Church
Excluded some Catholics and Calvinist Puritans.
London in the 1590s
➢ London grows rapidly in 16 century from 50 000 in 1530s to 20 000 by 1600
➢ increase in mercantile economy = influx of young men
➢ Protestant refugees coming in because London is sort of a safe haven
➢ City is not prepared to deal with a large number of immigrants and as a result they have
sanitation problems. They eventually introduce curfews – it becomes a bit of a dangerous
place. There is no police force.
The Elizabethan Court
➢ The court was the central institution of Renaissance states, linking the world of politics and
➢ Court life was a theatrical spectacle
➢ Nobles were at the top with high status
Tensions that Shape Elizabethan Satire
➢ Religious tensions btwn Puritans, Protestants,Anglicans, Catholics, Presbyterians
➢ Economic upheaval that introduces new classes into the social order and uproots old ones.
➢ Distrust of wealth as a corrupting influence on sexual morality and traditional family bonds.
Another theme that both Hall and Marston include in their satires
Discouragement of moving up the social ladder (discourage social mobility)
These themes come up in Juvenal's writing as well.
➢ Concern that it is difficult now to distinguish btwn good and bad, rich and poor.
➢ Rivalries btwn satirists concerning appropriate language and style in their writings,
presentation and learning. Hall and Marston
➢ Their satires (in 1590s) cause such controversy that all books had to be seized and further
satires could not be written unless approved by privy council
So it wasn't Shakespeare that caused controversy,