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Lecture

EESA01 – LECTURE 2.docx

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA01H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell
Semester
Fall

Description
EESA01 – LECTURE 2 Environmental Scien)sts and Environmentalists • My grandmother always calls me an “environmentalist”. She is only parally correct. Distinction between environmentalists are activist kind of type that are hugely biased in their views its useful because there’s another entirely biased wing of society for which things needs to be balanced out. Environmental scientist- needs to be unbiased, can’t explain any kind of study hoping or thinking that it would happen. They need to open and open that may not, but not necessarily hypothesize about. • The basis of science is to NOT approach a problem from a biased view (i.e., to be objec)ve). • Many environmentalists are not objec)ve. • This does not mean that environmental scien)sts cannot be environmentalists, just that they are not necessarily so. “Tragedy of the Commons” • Concept proposed by GarreU Hardin (Ecologist from UCSB) in 1968. • Unregulated exploita)on leads to resource deple)on. – relatively rapid.in a relative sense depletion. • Resource users are tempted to increase use un)l the resource as much as they can in relation to the technology they have to do so, often times drastic opposition to what they see happening in front of their face. Regardless of the fact that all the resources that were taken away they wont care but they want to get as much as they can for themselves. Is this STILL the basis for ongoing environmental issues? Can we do anything about it – oil sands – something related to the tragedy of the common? – not really. For the most part the state for the oil is taken out is a function of technology, and how quickly it can be refined not because of govt regulation, it comes in in terms of exploitation. Expect that resources will go to depletion. Rapa Nui actual name of thethsland (Easter Island) – there’s some European kind of exploration in the 18 century, they found the massive statue which is a mystery and how they could get there and people essentially living in squalor or cave and no vegetation or trees in the Island where resources could have been used. The real reason is landscape wasn’t like that forever. There’s some studies that shows the lake had dusts, dirt, pollen that falls in the water that settels down and falls on it continuously- if its slightly deep lake, the waves don’t mass up too much of the bottom. Lake sediments pull them and out and see whats in there – theirs iceotops, pollen analysis and see what was probably there before, its pretty robust technique. – erosion issues, There was a thriving civilization before, these massive trees they could have make resources if they had labours to do so, back when they had them without these regulation and exploitation of these resources specifically the expoitation of palm trees – regardless of that being grown for a long time and completely over used it thus they couldn’t make resources, couldn’t build anything and ate same types of food. • Pay close attention to “The Science Behind the Story” on page 12 of your text. • Downfall of a whole civilization at least par)ally attributable to “Tragedy of the Commons” The Base Cause of Environmental Degradation- population growth most consumption is gone from non renewable energy. – too stupid to realize whats going on. Thee’s lots of resource extraction going on + climate change – a lot of people seems to be paralyzed to do much about it. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT WE FACE TODAY ARE DUE TO A COMBINATION OF WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND CONSUMPTION (SPECIFICALLY, ENERGY) FAR ABOVE WHAT CAN EASILY BE REPLACED AND...A GENERAL IGNORANCE TO RECOGNIZE THIS. Contextualiza)on of Impact: The Ecological Footprint  How to put a quantity on how much we’re overusing resources is this ides of ecological footprint. – taking all of a person’s need on average – how far they drive car, how much they eat, how they heat up their house- all those resources that a lifestyle is using overall. – estimation of the Canadian lifestyle ecological footprint. Hecter is a 100 meter. Avg 6000 meters of land per person. Some of the less developed countries – largely these things come down to lifestyle, less money, less access to resources tend to have small ecological footprint. If you take all the ecological footprint of everyone and add it all together you could see that quite a long time ago we past the point where ecological footprint was smaller than the land area. Now we’re at a point where the amount of resources we need to continue the lifestyle as a globe is beyond the area we have on earth. The main reason is we’re using resources that aren’t to be used by us but should be used by future generation. – its not sustainable [has to be smaller footprint compared to the size of earth] Our Future: Cornucopians vs. Cassandras Cornucopia: has a lot to do whow we use resources in present. If when we’re on a trend of using more than we should be, but we’ll figure out ways in the future and be fine. horn of plenty – Human ingenuity will see us through our environmental problems via new technologies and the such. Cassandra: mythical princess of Troy who prophesized about dire future scenarios– All is lost because of our impact on the environment. They show the depressive way of thinking about things and think that we’re screwed. On to today’s main topic: Popula)on and Environmental Consequences Comprehension Objec)ves for Today’s Lecture • The scope of human popula)on growth • The history of human popula)on • Fundamentals of demography • The demographic transi)on • Factors that affect popula)on growth • The effect of popula)on, affluence and technology 
 on the environment • The current effects of disease in controlling popula)on growth IPAT(S) Model • 1974: Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren – conceptual model, semiquantative equation. Brings together all possible things that could affect the environment. • Total impact (I) on environment is a result of the interaction between population (P), affluence (A), technology (T), and sensitivity (S): Increasing population is a positive number. Decreasing population – decreasing impact. More money – greater impact in the Environment. Two different ways. 1 could decrease the impact by clean water tech and that would allow for quicker renewable process + increase impact by producing tech that are better at extracting oils, machines that are able to produce more crops on larger area. If tech could decrease the impact, so the number wouldn’t be negative, if you put one negative number you have less than 1- something in between 0 and 1. Population 10, affluence 5, sensitivity- 2, tech – 0.5 overall impact would be down. I=P×A×T×S
 • Impact is largely POLLUTION, RESOURCE or both. The First Humans Oldest known homonid (human-­‐ like) fossils: – Ethiopia: 4.1 My. bp – Chad: Lucy Australopithecus afarensis - ~7 My. bp? - “Toumaï” hUp://jamierainbowsuperstarpoptart.vox.com/library/audio/6a00d09e5b7c8abe2b00d414 27ec5e3c7f.html Sahelanthropus tchadensis Doubling Time • The number of years it takes, given a specific rate of increase, for a number (such as popula)on) to double.- relatively accurately modeled. tD = ln(2) *100 divided by growthrate(%) = 70 divided by growthrate(%) 1979 China growth rate = 2.8% (popl’n at )me: 1B) Current global growth rate = 1.2% (now: ~6.9B)- over 7B – double that population for 58 years. Current Canada growth rate (natural and net immigration together) = 0.9% (now: 33.5M Global Population Growth) The assumption is that growth rate is stable for a long time because if that changes, doubling rate would also change.
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