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EESA01H3 (141)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

Lecture 6 y Main input is precipitation and main output is evapotranspirationy Another input is runoff surface runoff groundwater y 2 ways of thinking of surface runoff 1 as a process it is water running off the surface Can water move uphill Only if under pressure so almost never it goes up Groundwater is a different thing Run off goes with gravity It will find easiest pathway 2 input or output y Generally movement of water outside boundary is via streamriver flow Accumulates and then moves Streams convey runoff from place to placey Urban systems flashy with runoff meaning a lot of Py Water beneath the groundy Upper limit of where it is filled with water is the water table This is saturatedy Top layer is unconfined aquifer and bottom is confined y Aquifer conveys significant amounts of water It is a groundwater storage where you can pull water in a sustainable manner and you have enough water to have a shower or fill your bathtub y Things that dont convey much water is aquaplume which doesnt convey any water at all y In an unconfined aquifer if you pierce hole in ground water would rise up in well to water tabley Piezometer opening and you pierce y Artesian flows on their own because of pressurey Aquifer recharge unconfined aquifer can have replenishment of water above along entire boundary of aquifer No aquitard or aquiflu Water draining through ground or recharged in that aquifer Confined aquifer is further beneath y Main difference between confined and unconfined is size of recharge areay Groundwater is main fresh water input to billions of people We are used to the fact that we have plentiful fresh water 100 drinking water comes from Lake Ontario Whereas 100 drinking water in Kitchener comes from groundwater 75 irrigation in the mid west USA comes from groundwater Depending on where you are and proximity to a certain source groundwater can be important Bangladesh water comes mainly from groundwatery Movement of GW from place to place is very very slow mmcmday y River may convey water at 1msy Residence time average time a water molecule staying in pool or reservoir Average of distribution y Turnover time time to move water out of reservoir It is much longer Far maximum y RT volume of poolflux rate out y River has short RT But flux rates are quicky GW flux rates is exceedingly slow Sometimes mday but never ms Movement flux rates are so slow that RT is long When it is long recovery of
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