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EESA01H3 (141)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

Lecture 7 y Pollution is when there is a magnitude where it can cause an effect Example putting a teaspoon of salt in the ocean isnt pollution but dumping a truck full of garbage isy PS easily measure or point to the exact place where pollution is coming from Example pipe behind factory putting chemical in river you can say it is PSy NPS Example spray pesticide on golf course where run off when to a river It would be a NPS y Basis on which food is grown If there is no soil we dont get food and we die No quick way to make soil it is a renewable resource Really a nonrenewable resource because its process is really slow Lead to downfall of many people Mesopotamia Aztecs y We have soil because plants started to grow so we started to have some organic matter that deposited on rock surface Forms from top down and bottom up Parent material is the rock If you go down soil you get soil and more soil and then the bedrock Bedrock erodes and degrades and breaks up into little pieces and this is helped out by wind and water and freezing action It disintegrated the rock Some organic matter may get deposited Start to get formation of horizonsy O Is black decomposing Largely decomposing plant material As you move down to A horizon this is like top soil that has nutrients Different things are held in soil that exchange with plants Different characteristics that hold water B horizon is where there is less organic matter and has to do with leaching of different chemicals and minerals from upper layers downwards Less rooting in these areas and more structure C horizon is an area of broken parent materialy Drier and colder do not leach as much minerals out of soil forming matrix as in a warmer and wetter environmenty Heat speeds chemical reaction y Moisture required for many biological process and speeds weathery Steep area or high relief there is a harder time to accumulate unconsolidated material because it wants to be carried away somewhere where its flaty Limestone is hugely dissolvable Granite isnt solubley Time takes centuries to millenniums to form The four above factors changes over time Soil that we see today may be the result of multiple things that happened throughout history of last several millenniums Soil formed is large part of history since last glacial which was 1011 000 years ago when it ended Its the formation timeline for southern Ontarioy Need to know about factors to know where to grow crops like corn etcy First thing to do is look at color of soil which tells you about the chemical makeup y If the soil has a lot of iron it is red or orange y If it is high in iron and very wet it will be black y If you have high organic matter it is brown or black
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