• Aquaculture: It’s good. 90% of what fish we eat is fresh water fish. Tuna, Macro are
ocean going fish. Salmon is Fresh water fish. There was lot of concerns in Canada. We
used to have massive caught fish.
- Disadvantage: Aquaculture: Is over crowded. There are more fish, over swimming.
Mostly they are genetically modified. Major worries: Realize of farm fish in the wild is
going to have an ecological overlap & bigger it is the resources it covers.
- Some fish, genetically modified--> red.
• Sustainable Agriculture:
- Being able to grow good food in a good soil. Potentially bypassing, ecological issue by
- Organic product: Exclusion of synthetic pesticides. Not spread with pesticides.
PEACHES- larger input of pesticides. Organic peaches have larger pesticides.
- Organic culture - dominated:
- We don’t have to use the synthesis, pesticides. But its still expensive because: less
yield. To insure that we are sustainable--> it is more expensive.
- CUBA, had organic farming.
- Pesticides-- cereals (wheat)- genetically modified.
- THere are several measure of biodiversity.
1. Species diversity: Most used form of bio diversity measures. Richness of species.
Different organism. (Predominant biodiversity). 16500 known species. We don’t
know most because it is really difficult to figure out all. Only a few have been known.
TO know the sequence of bacteria- we need to isolate one.. FOr lots of different
bacteria--> it is impossible to culture them. May only 1% of bacteria are cultured-
which makes it messily under estimate & are impossible. ( Arkea- produce methane,
genetically different not bacteria, but known as ancient bacteria). Vast majority of
species we know is INSECTS. (Alone, there are 1000 & 1000 of beetles). VAST
DIVERSITY. Half of the vertebrates we know is FISH.
* Scientific bias in study of biodiversity.
* In general biodiversity is spatially Variable. We are sure of species diversity varies on
Latitude. South- increasing, more no. of species per unit area. LINE of species
* Biodiversity increases as we move from the poles to SOUTH.
1. Genetic diversity: Variety of DNA within species although we are all same species, there are small genetic variation among us. What drives evolution, over long time- it is
the survival of the fittest. Survive disturbance or impacts then other- is more likely to
go through, then the impacts in some- weaker sustainability.
2. Ecosystem diversity: More variety of Ecosystem- tree, canopy, larger ecosystem
• LOss of Biodiversity:
- Through the act of human, ecosystem richness & biodiversity is gone.
- Extinction: Species ceases to exist.
* Vast majority of what existed on Earth was far more then we have right now.
Extinction is a nature part of Earth. THere has been at least 6 unnatural forces causing
Extinction. We are in massive year of species extinction.
* Natural process, but current rates of extinction are much higher than normal.
- Extirpation: Loss of a species from a particular area. ( Geographical location- e.g.
TIGERS). Species is Extirpated- but if it goes extirpated all over the area- then it is
- Endangered: Imminent danger (e.g. poller bear). danger of becoming extinct or