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Environmental Science
Carl Mitchell

LEC 4 Energy and Water EESA01 NEP = NPP – Ecosystem Respiration Ecosystem respiration includes both the respiration of carbon above the surface and from soil. Lithosphere: The Rock Cycle A Cut through Earth • Dense iron core, solid at its centre, molten surrounding it. • In the upper mantle, the asthenosphere is soft rock, near its melting point or molten. • The lithosphere “floats” on top of the upper mantle and convection moves large plates of the lithosphere (tectonic plates) along its surface. Interior Structure Drives Plate Tectonics LEC 4 Energy and Water EESA01 Lecture 4 – Earth Systems 17 Boundaries Between Tectonic Plates These processes form the foundation for ecological processes on surface. Lecture 4 – Earth Systems 18 Tectonics Control Geological Hazards Lecture 4 – Earth Systems 19 Global Energy Balance and Global Water Cycle Lecture 4 – Energy and Water 20 Basics of Energy and Climate • A warm substance is warm because it holds more energy than a cold substance. • If a warm substance becomes cooler, it is because energy is leaving the substance. • In a steady-‐state Earth, incoming energy will equal outgoing energy over a year. • If this is not true, the Earth will either warm up or cool down. LEC 4 Energy and Water EESA01  • Earth’s climate is all about energy fluxes and the balance between outgoing and incoming energy.  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, just transferred. Lecture 4 – Energy and Water 21 Earth is “Open” to Energy  • InsolaKon is energy received from the Sun  • InsolaKon is “shortwave” radiaKon.  • Shortwave radiaKon inputs include: – Ultraviolet light (UV) – Visible light – Near-‐infrared wavelengths  • InsolaKon drives most processes on Earth.  • InsolaKon and Earth’s Klt and rotaKon produce the daily, seasonal, and annual paLerns of day length and climate. (INcoming SOLar radiATION). Lecture 4 – Energy and Water 22 Seasons Lecture 4 – Energy and Water Figure 14.5 23 ElectromagneKc RadiaKon Wavelength: ElectromagneKc radiaKon travels in “waves”; the distance between wave peaks is wavelength. Lecture 4 – Energy and Water 24 Why is InsolaKon Shortwave RadiaKon? Wien’s Displacement Law: wavelength at which maximum energy radiaKon occurs is inversely related to surface temperature. LEC 4 Energy and Water EESA01 
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