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Lecture 5

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Environmental Science
Lisa Tutty

Feb 4, 2013 EESA06 Lecture 5 Notes  MIDTERM Sat, Feb 16; format: multiple choice, short answer chosen from a list Lecture 4 cntd .  Sedimentary rocks come from worn down bits of other rocks  Sediments come from the wearing down of other rocks  The sediments/ions have to be deposited and collected together somewhere  Minerals precipitate out of hot springs  Limestone is a sedimentary rock that is often formed at coral reefs  Compaction-> sediment piling on top of one another so that it becomes compacted  Cementation-> something sticky such as silica and calcite cements the grains together  Turning a non-rock into a rock is lithification  Anywhere from the deepest water areas to the top of mountains can be depositional areas for sedimentary rocks  Rock made from sediments on a beach would most likely be sandstone  In deeper water the sediments are very small  Clastic means broken; broken up bits of other rocks (sands, silts, clays, pebbles)  May also be chemical and biological sedimentary rocks  You can form limestone from old coral reefs; biological/biochemical sedimentary rocks  Broken bits can be clastic or they can be dissolved ions in a solution that eventually precipitate out  Physical weathering means physically breaking up the rock  Chemical weathering in breaking it down with chemicals (ie. acid rain)  Sediments are moved around by many different forces; ie. winds, water, ice  Sediments are named by their size  Silts you can feel between your teeth and clay you can’t  Conglomerate is made up of sediments that are larger than sand; can have smaller sediments in it too  Matrix is made of ground up rocks  Gowganda formation has rock types from all these different locations  When you transport sediments, the further you transport them, the more chance that they have to rub against each other and get rounded  How rounded or how angular rocks are can help to tell us how far they have travelled  Something that is well sorted has one size of sediments in it in; poorly sorted has different sizes/types of sediments  If something has travelled a fair distance it is generally sorted Feb 4, 2013  Texture on the level of an outcrop is something that you can physically just see outside; wouldn’t have to dig for them  See layers of fine sand, and boulders on top-> when there is a large force such as a flood, the river has a lot more energy and can carry large boulders and deposit them  Breccia means ‘broken’; all the rock pieces are angular, unlike the conglomerate o
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