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Lecture 8

EESA06 Lecture 8 Notes.docx

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Environmental Science
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Lisa Tutty

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Mar 4, 2013 EESA06 Lecture 8 Notes  Layer cake diagram has the 4 layers of Ontario geology  Most rocks in layer 1 are metamorphic; made when old plates came together and formed old mountains that no longer exist  Gneiss rock on the way to Sudbury is the roots of old chain of mountains that have been worn away by erosion  May collisions happened to form the craton/core of North America  Layer 2 was the mountainous surface and was located near the equator  Over time the erosion wore down layer 2 until it was relatively flat; peneplanation (rugged surface that was worn down to being almost flat)  Coral reef started to form and created limestone on layer 2; has lots of sedimentary rocks  Bits of rock that are eroding off of the mountains are deposited into the shallow seas with the coral reef and smothers them; forms clastic sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale  Layers of repetitive rocks- inter-bedding (repeated cycles of rock types)  Paleozoic is 400-600 mya  Black line between layers 1 and 2 is the great unconformity  Black line between layers 2 and 3 is the unconformity called the ‘big gap’  Layer 3 is not rocks but glacial and interglacial sediments  20 000 Toronto was covered by a km thick of ice  Interglacial means between times of ice cover  Layer 4 is all the garbage and building; everything humans are doing to the landscape  Each layer has different resources  People started making geologic maps when they became interested in resources  Egyptian map was used to find way to gold resource  Before Agricola, people thought rocks and minerals had magic properties  Agricola noticed that slaves working in mines got diseases that other people didn’t get, and noticed things about geology so he wrote a book about geology and diseases  William ‘Strata’ Smith; came up with the stratographic principal of fossils to figure out what layers are older than others; made the first modern geological map  Sir William Logan made maps for the search for coal  Slave Craton and Superior Craton are the old areas that are part of layer 1 and are marked as greenstone; they have a specific set of index minerals which make the rock look green  Greenstone is extraordinarily rich in economic resources such as gold  *short answer question* VMS: you get sea water and near MOR, the sea water gets into the cracks and gets heated up; as sea water gets heated and goes through the rocks, it ends up exchanging O, K, Ca, Mg between water and the Mar 4, 2013 rock; when water gets very hot, it picks up Iron, Sulfur, Zinc and Copper, and water makes it way out of rocks and comes out into the cold sea again; cools down and can no longer hold onto S, Co, Fe, Zn; leaves pure minerals with almost no refining  Acid mine drainage- runoff came down the hill into the
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