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Lecture 7

Environment Lecture 7.doc

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
Carl Mitchell
Semester
Fall

Description
Environment: Lecture 7 GRAPHS - Diverging winds: air that moves downwards = Dry Conditions - Converging flow: hit – air moves upward = Rain Conditions o This cools air because it is raising, cooled brings precipitation - Middle Finger = high and low precipitations Evapotranspiration - “the confluence (meeting) of free open water & transportation from plants” - Opposite of precipitation - Major output - 1) Energy: Latent Energy = Sun ( it turns liquid  vapour) o Equator has lots of evapotranspiration - 2) Vapour Pressure: Measure of the concentration of water vapour in the air o a partial pressure causes it’s a gas o the drier the air (dry air mass ) = the more water it can take up  mass receives emitted vapour  Lots of wind moves vapour  A LOT OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION o humid days = saturated air will not take up more vapour = Limited Evapotranspiration - 3) Wind: o Put a face down – once it accumulates a lot of vapour – it wont increase evapotranspiration o put a cup face up – moist air is moved from wind = A LOT OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATON - 4)Resistance in Plants: Plants move water through systems, when plants are under stress because it hasn’t rained Plants stop photosynthesizing(close stomata) because they will lose water and wilt.(BIOLOGIAL CONTROLS) * balance of precuipatation and evaptransipration can etermine ecosystems chracteristics Runoff - Everything between the raindrop hitting the earth & it becoming a part of water systems - Runoff hitting earth becomes stream flow - Runoff always ends up into oceans - Balance between excess of precipitation On land and evapotranspiration - “surface run off”: surfaces with low absorption capacity - makes water run off like sheets to rives - Water infiltrates forest grounds, follows gravity underground until it reaches streams o Takes a very long time o Ex. If pollutants are in the water and its moving underground, soil is a great filter and it filters out water o Ex. How does a river still flow if there is no input of rainfall? It is BASEFLOW, which isg groundwater that has been in transit for a very long time Q. Why are wet places wet & dry places dry? Dry: Water Leaving > Water coming in and Wet: Water Leaving < Water coming in Water Balance: Negative # = Dry Water Balance: Positive # = Wet The Water Balance - More outputs = change in storage goes down - More Inputs = change in storage goes up Fresh Water - Majority in ice caps and glaciers - Surface available fresh water is 1% Water shed: a topographic defined area that sets the boundary on the land mass that draind through a certain point in a river Rivers - Small tributaries drain  bigger tributaries that flow out  one area - Stream Order: Streams start at head-waters st 1 order: no tributaries d4raining into it  just starting out 2 ndorder: 1 order stream + 1 order stream 2 ndorder: 1 order stream + 2 ndorder stream 3 order: 2 ndorder + 2 ndorder MUST BE IDENTICAL STREAM ORDERS TO GO UP! (The Don Valley is a 5 or 6) Wetlands - “an area where the water table is at or near the service for part of the year –
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