Midterm – Mcqs + end of the chapter questions + glossary
TERMS TO REMEMBER
1. Coseismic deformation of coastlines during major earthquakes
Processes happening at the same time as earthquake.
2. Coseismic uplift and subsidence
After an earthquake there’s an uplift rise and fall – subsidence. ▯ that makes changes in the land form. Geologists can
read these land forms to find out when and what happened.
3. Ghost forests (drowned forests produced by coseismic subsidence)
In Alaska ▯ forests that were killed by subsidence. The salt water has got in and killed the trees. (They just look like
dead trees, but actually are earthquake activities.)
4. Paleoseismology ▯ ancient – identifying when the earthquaked occurred and project to the future.
5. Recurrence THmes of major earthquakes ▯ frequency of earthquakes. ( FUSAKICHI OMORI AND JOHN
MILINE: 19 CENTUARY POINEERS OF SEISPOLOGY) But it’s actually a short amount of time we only have been
6. Seismic gaps ▯ the epicenter ▯ directly above the focus ▯ WHERE the earthquake happens. The quickest way to
find out is to see where it is NOT happening. This is known as seismic gap. A seismic gap is an overdue of
7. Gap filling earthquakes – when the big earthquakes happen and fill the seismic gap.
8. Richter scale (degree of shaking measured from seismograms)
The amount of shaking that occurs during an earthquake. There is 110 log scale. How much energy it produces. See
page 7679. Expressed from 1 to 10 on a logarithmic scale (see pp. 769 in text) BUT a 32 fold increase in energy from
one Richter magnitude to another. – Amount of energy increased.
9. Modified Mercalli scale (measures damage) 10. Amplification and suppression of earthquake energy by local geologic conditions
wet rock or dry rock – could affect the earthquake.
11. SEISMITES deformed rocks – studying geological deformaties?
Details – not much
• Chapters 14
Pacific Rim – where oceanic crust is being subducted. (Recycling of oceanic crust to make continental crust)
The ocean is closing
• Mega cities – cities that are growing very quickly.
Pacific Rim is a dynamic economic and geographic area comprising over 48% of the world trade.
It is more vulnerable to geological hazards.
The emerging mega cities around the Rim are called “CITIES ON THE EDGE”. Canada is a Pacific Rim country.
• Viscosity – The thickness
• ANDESTIC VOLCANOES – The most dangerous of Volcanoes.
Volcanoes are dangerous but also useful. The Pacific Rim is very resourceful. We can find Copper :]
Pulfery and Obsedian ? The lava when it cools fast.
The minerals gets deposited and you can find dykes? (stockworts? – the intersecting dykes)
Chuquicamata – open pit mine in notheren chilie.
Peacock ORE – a rock that contains a lot of mineral you can mine it. Copper comes from within waste rocks.
San Andreas Fault no subduct