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EESA06H3 (570)
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Lecture 5

EESA06 Lecture 5.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles

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EESA06 Lecture 5 Page 1 EESA06 Lecture 5 When oceans close is the dangerous volcanoes – because of subduction. Raeology – ability to flow, how easy does that magma flow? - Iceland is very fluid – not that dangerous, all gases come out - More viscosious - dangerous, stuff comes out – pyroclastic - Pyroclastic – broken by fire, rocks are shattered by eruptions and thrown up into air - Volcanic bombs or ash(is a misnomer - named improperly) o Italy thought it was coal burning The Green Areas – subduction back into the mantle - Friction (earthquakes), melting (volcanoes) - Similar to lava lamp The Pacific Ring of Fire: Tectonics of a closing ocean - Pacific Rim - Dense concentration of volcanes, major earthquakes, tsunamis Subduction: - The stars marks earthquakes - The deepest earthquakes are 700km down - We know that slabs don’t melt till after 700km down - Magmatic Arc – a line of volcanoes directly above subduction zone - Oceanic crust – made out of basalt - Silicic magma - Sediment + seawater melted, reducing viscosiy of magma - Deep water trenches – ocean floor going down into subduction zone New Zealand: small island, exposed tip of a much larger land mass (Zealandia) - Red Boundary - Pacific plate and Austrailian Plate o Bottom: Austrailian Plate is being subducted under Pacific Plate o Top: Pacific Plate is being subducted under Austrailian Plate (older oceanic crust is heavier) o Middle: Obduction - Colliding continental crust together - Obduction – Himalayas, creating high mountains Continential Crust Collides with Continenetial Crust: - The Southern Alps – Mt.Cook in New Zealand White Island – young volcano - Lateral (side) blast – highly dangerous - Caused by sector colapse EESA06 Lecture 5 Page 2 - Sulfuric acid – natural pollution Merapi Volcano – Indonesia’s most dangerous - Killed the gate keeper that protected the volcano Subduction: Older oceanic crust going under younger crust - Japan & Indonesia - When you collide two oceanic crust, creates continential crust, generates new lands - Proto-continents – first continents Model of Merapi - Steep Volcano – very susceptible to sector collapse Eruption: 1) Pyroclastic Flow - White areas – with gas and boulders 2) Lahars – debris flow – similar to concrete Merapi’s sister – stable Top of Merapi – very unstable because has thick plug of magma being pushed up, building a cap and its beginning to fall off - Large cracks When erupts – gase and large masses of rock rolling down - Pyroclastic flows - Rich soils – farming at base of volcano After the pyroclastic flows – the large boulders - Mt.Winson killed 30 journalists EESA06 Lecture 5 Page 3 Flow deposits – burnt stuff buried - Charred woods – dark oval Japan: Volcanic arc - Earthquake nation, most danergous place on pacfic rim - More volcanoes, active faults - Tokyo – four plates combined here Arc of volcanoes becomes an island Chikyu – the earth - Drill ship – can drill 7km down into ocean floor - Made out of derrick – the drilling apparation - Riser system – can withstand high gas pressures - Want to drill down into mantle – new source of energy + mineral deposits etc. - Want to find an early warning system for earthquakes Mount Fuji and the City of Fujioshida - Famous for fire festival - Make offerings to the volcano - Pyres – light these for celebration Mount Unzen of Japan’s Deadliest Vol
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