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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2.docx

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Environmental Science
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Andre Sorensen

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January 13, 2014 LECTURE 2 Key things to remember: • formation of planet earth 4500 million years before present • continental first and Pangaea 1912 (Alfred Wegener) • sea floor spreading 1960 (Harold hess) • magnetic stripes on the ocean floor and wander paths for continents: 1965 (fred wine) • mid ocean ridges and hot sports 1965 (tuzo Wilson) • plate tectonic and Wilson cycle: 1967 (tuzo Wilson) • Wegener named it continental drift in 1912 • was rejected by most north American geologists • south geologists tended to accept it unlike northern ones • Pangaea consists of laurasia, basically ancient northern America and Asia • gondwana, is a sea shaped continent • wegener based his evidence on rock types • look at ancient rocks and identify it • he put continents together and noticed that they all made sense because of rocks • he wasn’t able to date but we know it was 250 million years ago • with the fossil records, he was able to connect the rocks from south Africa with brazil • striations are deep scratches on rock surfaces • sound waves help reconstruct layers, different frequencies that are transmitted down on the ocean floors • we use relatively low sound waves, some of these will go down until we can see the mapping • we can use swath bathymetry • sides can instruments give useful image of lake floor January 13, 2014 • by late 60, late 70s there was a better idea about how the ocean floor looks like • deep water along lands is called “trench” • presence of underwater mountains was identified, called “mid ocean ridge” • presene of a rift, mountains being torn apart to create deep interior valley • fractures, offset mid ocean ridge, • these fractures are now called transformed thoughts • another key observations is that there are always activity • Iceland, has ice caps and volcanos, only area in the planet where you can see a mid ocean rideg above sea level
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