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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 4 th Topics for Lecture 4 and for Quiz 3 on Thrusday Feb 10 1) Introduction to mid-} L]2Z9,}LLL ]L^}ZZ]o_,KZZ~ ooKZ]}o]Z 2) Why are more MORs Fractured? The role of transform faults 3) Iceland: Walking over a Mid-Ocean Ridge 4) Magnetic Stripes Recorded in Ocean Floor Crust and The Age of Ocean Floors 5) Basalt Lava Flows: Fissure Eruptions 6) Volcanic Activity Under Glaciers: Jokulhlaups! 7) Geothermal Energy Oceans only widen(rift) to a certain width then they start to close - subduction - cooling away from ridge and thickens at sides - It wants to sink back down to the mantle - History of continent is dictated by ocean history Ophiolites J Ancient pieces of ocean crust - Combining the information can put a picture of history of MORs - Contain rocks that are very mineral-rich Mid Ocean Ridge - Middle of Atlantic, constantly volcanic eruptions - Are not continuous, are fractured Fractures J horizontal lines on MORs - enable ocean floor spreading on a curved earth surface Dykes J result of hot magma intruding into older rock, sheeted Dykes - surrounding rock will be extended - basic fuel behind plate tectonics Plumes J supply the large amounts of magma How Oceans Widen: Continuous intrusion of dykes - continuous cooling of margins of magma chamber and continuous intrusion of new magma at center - symmetrical distribution on each side Pillow Basalt J pillowed lava, rounded masses where basalt magma was cooled very quickly Gabbro J chemically equivalent of basalt but has larger crystals since it cools slowly, igneous rock Peridotite J dominant mineral is olivine (Peridot), the mantle is made out of peridotite Distill J Gabbro and Basalt is distilled from huge mantle plumes Ridge Push- Hot magma pushes up and dykes intrude Slab pull - Ocean floor sinks under its own weight Continental crust - is the product of melting ocean crust plus sea water
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