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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture Page 3 EESA06 Lecture 3How continents Break Up and Oceans Open Mantle movement createsTriple junctions3 major fractures o Middle of continent dome forms above plume o Outward flow from plume creates riftso Only one rift develops into an ocean Failed rifts are preserved in modern continents from the breakup of Pangeathey just sit there and may fill up with sediments Example of failed rifts in Canada Ottawa river valley and St Lawrence river valleyo Control river flow generate earthquakesStage 1 East African Rift Continent undergoes extension the crust is thinned and a rift valley formsStage 2 Red Sea Continent tears in two continent edges are fractured and uplifted Basalt eruptions form oceanic crustStage 3 Atlantic OceanContinental sediments blackout the subsiding pressure margins to keep continental shelves the ocean widens and a midocean ridge develops as in the Atlantic OceanDifference between a Sea and an Ocean Ocean has a midocean ridge and always widening Seas do not widenEast African
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