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Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 6 Page 1EESA06 Lecture 6FossilsStep 1 The earliest Bacteria 38 GaStep 2 The Cambrian Explosion 542 Ma multicellular animals with shells backbones etc Step 3 Diversification During the Paleozoic c400250 MaStep 4 Role of Meteorites Nova DVD Becoming Human Evolution of EarthHadean Periodhell on earthRocks was molten no water no atmosphereDiversificationheavier elements sank to the middle Magnetic fieldto hold on to the gaseswhich build up atmosphereoceansHow are fossils formed Shells buried and preserved unaltered 100 million years MineralizationCavities are filled with silica calcium carbonate iron ex tree stumps Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocko Exception Pompeii people covered by pyroclastic flow and fossilized in ashPermineralizationDie in or near waterSoft parts consumed by bacteriaSedimentation fine grained more detail chemical makeup of rockcolorMore sediments pile onpressurerockMineral rich waterchanges to the shell Upliftby continental crusts coming together plate tectonicsErosionwear away rocks Ammolitean organic gemstoneAmmonite fossilsiridescent aragonite with trace elementsFe Mn Al Ba Trace FossilsPreserved tracks trails burrows protectionfood boringsIchnologystudy of trace fossilsBioturbationprocess of disturbing sedimentFossils as clues to ancient environments Palaeocologystudy of ancient organisms and their environmentso StCuthbert rings Sea LilyCrinoide o Clues from fossil types assemblages group of fossils tend to be found together fossil morphology trace fossils Fossils and stratigraphyHow do we use fossils in stratigraphyo to establish relative age of rock units correlate unitsWhat information do we need to do thiso Relative age of rock unitso Fossil species present in each unit
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