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Lecture 4

EESA06 Lecture 4.docx

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 4 Page 1EESA06 Lecture 4th Topics for Lecture 4 and for Quiz 3 on Thrusday Feb 101 Introduction to midocean ridges Modern and Ancient Fossil MORs Called Ophiolites2 Why are more MORs Fractured The role of transform faults3 Iceland Walking over a MidOcean Ridge 4 Magnetic Stripes Recorded in Ocean Floor Crust and The Age of Ocean Floors5 Basalt Lava Flows Fissure Eruptions6 Volcanic Activity Under Glaciers Jokulhlaups7 Geothermal Energy Oceans only widenrift to a certain width then they start to closesubductioncooling away from ridge and thickens at sides It wants to sink back down to the mantle History of continent is dictated by ocean history OphiolitesAncient pieces of ocean crust Combining the information can put a picture of history of MORsContain rocks that are very mineralrichMid Ocean Ridge Middle of Atlantic constantly volcanic eruptions Are not continuous are fracturedFractureshorizontal lines on MORsenable ocean floor spreading on a curved earth surface Dykesresult of hot magma intruding into older rock sheeted Dykessurrounding rock will be extended basic fuel behind plate tectonicsPlumessupply the large amounts of magmaHow Oceans Widen Continuous intrusion of dykescontinuous cooling of margins of magma chamber and continuous intrusion of new magma at center symmetrical distribution on each side Pillow Basaltpillowed lava rounded masses where basalt magma was cooled very quicklyGabbrochemically equivalent of basalt but has larger crystals since it cools slowly igneous rock Peridotitedominant mineral is olivine Peridot the mantle is made out of peridotiteDistillGabbro and Basalt is distilled from huge mantle plumesRidge Push Hot magma pushes up and dykes intrude Slab pullOcean floor sinks under its own weightContinental crustis the product of melting ocean crust plus sea water1
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